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Flashcards in Pregnancy and Parturition Deck (73):
1

What are the functions of amniotic fluid?

- Protects the baby from trauma - Allows the baby to move around without damaging mothers organs - Makes the area symmetrical - Allows the baby to move and exercise - maintains constant temperature - allows baby to practice swallowing           Cushions fetus from trauma and provides space to exercise growing muscles
 Prevents uterus from compressing the fetus and allows normal lung development and symmetrical growth
 Maintains constant temperature

2

What are the functions of the placenta?

- Nourishes the foetus - makes hormones for the baby (GH, HCG, Progesterone, Relaxin, Human placental lactogen) - exchanges blood nutrients,O2, wastes by diffusion - Immunological roll - IGG antibody

3

What can pass through the placenta?

- blood gases - nutrients - waste - IGG antibodies - alcohol - nicotine

4

What cannot pass through the placenta?

- proteins and blood cells

5

What blood vessel carries oxygen and nutrient rich blood from the placenta to the fetus?

umbilical vein

6

What blood vessels carry carbon dioxide and laden blood fro the fetus to the placenta>

umbilical artery

7

What are the three vascular shunts that are modified in fetal blood circulation and what are there functions?

- Foramen ovale- allows blood to go from the left atrium to the right atrium - Ductus Arteriosus- connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta stopping blood from going through the pulmonary circuit - Ductus Venous- blood bypasses the liver

8

What are the events occuring at A, B and C?

Q image thumb

A- Morula           B- Zygote          C- Implanted Blastocyst

9

What is the functional importance of the acrosomal reaction?

Acrosomal enzymes are necessary for sperm penetration into the egg. However if released earlier could cause damage to the sperm.

10

What is the fluid filled region A called?

Q image thumb

Blastocyst cavity

11

What is the role of the corpus luteum?

 

  a. ovulation 
  b. to produce hormones that maintain the uterine lining during the first months of pregnancy 
  c. to stimulate the female sexual response 
  d. to produce the primary oocytes 
 

b. to produce hormones that maintain the uterine lining during the first months of pregnancy

12

3) It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after ________.
A) the tail disappears
B) they become spermatids
C) they undergo capacitation
D) they have been stored in the uterus for several days

C) they undergo capacitation

13

4) Milk ejection or letdown reflex is stimulated by which of the following hormones associated with pregnancy?
A) inhibin
B) oxytocin
C) prolactin
D) gonadotropin

B) oxytocin

14

5) Estrogen and progesterone maintain the integrity of the uterine lining and prepare the mammary glands to secrete milk. Which of the following structures makes this possible during the first three months of pregnancy?
A) the amnion
B) the chorion
C) corpus luteum
D) corona radiata

C) corpus luteum

15

The correct sequence of preembryonic structures is ________.

 

 

 a. morula, zygote, blastocyst 
b.zygote, morula, blastocyst 
 c. blastocyst, morula, zygote 
 d. zygote, blastocyst, morula 
 

b. zygote, morula, blastocyst 

16

Sperm freshly deposited in the female vagina are incapable of fertilizing an egg. What must happen first?

 a. gestation 
 b. cortical reaction 
 c. acrosomal reaction 
 d. capacitation 
 

 c. acrosomal reaction 

17

Implantation involves ________.

 

a.  placenta completion 
b.  fusion of egg and sperm 
c.  formation of germ layers 
d.  embedding of the blastocyst in the uterine wall 
 

d.  embedding of the blastocyst in the uterine wall 

18

Shortly after implantation ________.

 

a. maternal blood sinuses bathe the inner cell mass 
b.  the embryo gastrulates (within 3 days) 
c.  myometrical cells cover and seal off the blastocyst 
d.  the trophoblast forms two distinct layers 
 

d.  the trophoblast forms two distinct layers
 

19

15) The umbilical arteries carry ________.
A) waste products to the placenta
B) oxygen and food to the fetus
C) oxygen and metabolic wastes to the placenta
D) oxygen and waste products to the fetus

A) waste products to the placenta

20

Most systems are operational in the fetus by four to six months. Which system is the exception to this generalization, affecting premature infants?

a. the circulatory system          b. the respiratory system             c. the urinary system            d. the digestive system

 b. the respiratory system 

21

The zygote contains chromosomes from

a. the mother only

b. the father only

c. both the mother and the father, but half from each
d. each parent and synthesized others. 

c. both the mother and the father, but half from each

22

The outer layer of the blastocysts, which later attaches to the uterus, is the..

a. decidua

b. trophoblast

c. amnion
d. inner cell mass

 

b. trophoblast

23

In the fetus, the ductus arteriosus carries blood from..

a. the pulmonary artery to the pulmonary vein

b. the liver to the inferior vena cava

c. the right ventricle to the left ventricle
d. the pulmonary trunk to the aorta 

d. the pulmonary trunk to the aorta 

24

Following delivery of the infant, the delivery of the afterbirth includes the 

a. placenta only

b. placenta and decidea

c. placenta and attached (torn) fetal membranes
d. chorionic villi 

c. placenta and attached (torn) fetal membranes

25

The umbilical vein carries

a. waste products to the placenta

b. oxygen and food to the fetus

c. oxygen and food to the placenta
d. oxygen and waste products to the fetus 

b. oxygen and food to the fetus

26

Which of the following cannot pass through placental barriers?

a. blood cells

b. glucose

c. amino acids

d. gases
e. amino acids 

a. blood cells

27

The most important hormone  in initiating and maintaining lactation after birth is..

a. estrogen

b. FSH

c.prolactin
d. oxytocin 

c.prolactin

28

Estrogen and progesterone maintain the integrity of the uterine lining and prepare the mammary glands to secrete milk. Which of the following structures makes this possible during the first three months of pregnancy?                                                  a. corpus luteum 
b. the chorion 
 c. corona radiata 
 d. the amnion
 

a. corpus luteum 

29

Which of the following is not a primary germ layer?

 

 

a.  Endoderm 
b.  Ectoderm 
c.  Mesoderm 
d.  Gastroderm 
 

d.  Gastroderm 

30

The result of polyspermy in humans is ________.

 

 

a.  a nonfunctional zygote 
b.  multiple births 
 c. mitotic insufficiency 
 d. interruption of meiosis 
 

a.  a nonfunctional zygote

31

Cleavage as part of embryonic development is distinctive because it involves ________.

 

 

  a. splitting the cell into two separate cells 
b.  the fusion of gametes 
c.  meiosis 
d. cell division by mitosis with little or no growth between successive divisions 
 

d. cell division by mitosis with little or no growth between successive divisions
 

32

Select the correct statement about fertilization.

 

 

a.  Both spermatozoa and the ovulated secondary oocyte remain viable for about 72 hours in the female reproductive tract. 
b.  Once inside the uterus, most sperm cells are protected and remain viable. 
c.  Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment. 
d.  If estrogen is present, the pathway through the cervical opening is blocked from sperm entry. 
 

c.  Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment. 

33

The sole responsibility of the placenta is to supply the fetus with oxygen and nutrients.

 

 

  True
  False
 

  False
 

34


Which body system of a pregnant woman shows the greatest physiological changes during pregnancy?

 

 

a.  urinary system
 b. cardiovascular system
c.  digestive system
 d. respiratory system
 

 b. cardiovascular system

35


Which of the following can pass through the placental barriers?

 

 

a.  nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and alcohol
b.  nutrients and respiratory gases only
c.  respiratory gases, hormones, nutrients, and blood cells
d.  hormones, blood cells, and nutrients
 

a.  nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and alcohol

36

Initially, the implanted embryo obtains its nutrition by ________.

 

 

 a. the blood supply of the placenta 
 b. nutrient stores in the embryonic cells 
c. digestion of endometrial cells 
 d. simple diffusion of nutrients from the uterine secretions 
 

c. digestion of endometrial cells 

37

Which hormone maintains the viability of the corpus luteum?

 

 

a. progesterone 
b. human placental lactogen 
 c. human chorionic gonadotropin 
 d. estrogen 
 


c. human chorionic gonadotropin 

38

Which of the following is not a primary germ layer?

 

 

 a. Endoderm 
 b. Ectoderm 
 c. Mesoderm 
 d. Gastroderm
 

 d. Gastroderm

39

The_______develops when the cells of the epiblast fashion themselves into the a transparent membranous sac

Amnion

40

this sac, the amnion becomes filled with ____

initially derived from the maternal blood, but as fetal kidneys become functional, fetal urine contributes to volume

Amniotic fluid

41

Shortly after implantation ________.
A) maternal blood sinuses bathe the inner cell mass
B) myometrical cells cover and seal off the blastocyst
C) the trophoblast forms two distinct layers
D) the embryo gastrulates (within 3 days)

C) the trophoblast forms two distinct layers

42

1.1) Cells on the dorsal surface of the two-layered embryonic disc migrate to form a raised groove known as the ________.
A) blastocyst
B) amnion formation
C) germ cell formation
D) primitive streak

D) primitive streak

43

It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after ________.
A) the tail disappears
B) they become spermatids
C) they undergo capacitation
D) they have been stored in the uterus for several days

C) they undergo capacitation

44

The placenta, a vitally important metabolic organ, is made up of a contribution from mother and fetus. Which portion is from the fetus?
A) chorion
B) umbilicus
C) yolk sac
D) amnion

A) chorion

45

Relaxin is a hormone produced by the placenta and ovaries. The function of this hormone is to ________.
A) block the pain of childbirth
B) ensure the implantation of the blastula
C) relax the pubic symphysis
D) prevent morning sickness

C) relax the pubic symphysis

46

Proteases and acrosin are enzymes. How do they function in reproduction?
A) They neutralize the mucous secretions of the uterine mucosa.
B) They direct the sperm to the egg through chemical messengers.
C) They act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate.
D) Their function is unknown.

C) They act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate.

47

12.12) Which of the following is a highly unlikely method of producing a child?
A) embryo transfer
B) ectopic implantation
C) in vitro fertilization
D) gamete intrafallopian transfer

B) ectopic implantation

48

The formation of endodermal and ectodermal germ layers occurs at ________.
A) fertilization
B) cleavage
C) gastrulation
D) blastula formation

C) gastrulation

49

Which of the following is not a correct matching of a fetal structure with what it becomes at birth?
A) foramen ovalefossa ovalis
B) ductus arteriosusligamentum teres
C) ductus venosusligamentum venosum
D) umbilical arteriesmedial umbilical ligament

B) ductus arteriosusligamentum teres

50

Implantation involves ________.
A) placenta completion
B) formation of germ layers
C) fusion of egg and sperm
D) embedding of the blastocyst in the uterine wall

D) embedding of the blastocyst in the uterine wall

51

The umbilical arteries carry ________.
A) waste products to the placenta
B) oxygen and food to the fetus
C) oxygen and metabolic wastes to the placenta
D) oxygen and waste products to the fetus

A) waste products to the placenta

52

The correct sequence of preembryonic structures is ________.
A) zygote, blastocyst, morula
B) zygote, morula, blastocyst
C) blastocyst, morula, zygote
D) morula, zygote, blastocyst

B) zygote, morula, blastocyst

53

The trophoblast is mostly responsible for forming the ________.
A) allantois
B) archenteron
C) placental tissue
D) lining of the endometrium

C) placental tissue

54

The cardiovascular system of a newborn must be adjusted after the infant takes its first breath. Which of the following is also true?
A) The foramen ovale between the atria of the fetal heart closes at the moment of birth.
B) The ductus venosus is disconnected at the severing of the umbilical cord and all visceral blood goes into the vena cava.
C) The urinary system is activated at birth.
D) The ductus arteriosus constricts and is converted to the ligamentum arteriosum.

D) The ductus arteriosus constricts and is converted to the ligamentum arteriosum.

55

Sperm move to the uterine tube through uterine contractions and the energy of their own flagella. What other factor is involved in sperm movement?
A) hormonal attraction to the ova
B) reverse peristalsis of the uterus and uterine tubes
C) the cilia on the apex of the cells lining the endometrium
D) the increased temperature in the vagina, which stimulates sperm motility

B) reverse peristalsis of the uterus and uterine tubes

56

At which stage of labor is the "afterbirth" expelled?
A) dystocia
B) expulsion
C) placental
D) full dilation

C) placental

57

Which hormone is not produced by the placenta?
A) human placental lactogen
B) human chorionic thyrotropin
C) relaxin
D) inhibin

D) inhibin

58

During which stage of labor is the fetus delivered?
A) dilation stage
B) expulsion stage
C) placental stage
D) gastrula stage

B) expulsion stage

59

Implantation of the blastocyst is the result of all of the following except ________.
A) phagocytosis by the trophoblast cells
B) proteolytic enzymes produced by the trophoblast cells
C) settling of the blastocyst onto the prepared uterine lining
D) adherence of the trophoblast cells to the endometrium

A) phagocytosis by the trophoblast cells

60

Cleavage as part of embryonic development is distinctive because it involves ________.
A) cell division by mitosis with little or no growth between successive divisions
B) the fusion of gametes
C) splitting the cell into two separate cells
D) meiosis

A) cell division by mitosis with little or no growth between successive divisions

61

Which of the following is not usually considered a teratogen?
A) aspirin
B) wine
C) thalidomide
D) German measles

A) aspirin

62

Which of the choices below occurs if fertilization of the ovum occurs and implantation takes place?
A) The corpus luteum is maintained until the placenta takes over its hormone-producing functions.
B) The corpus luteum degenerates and becomes the corpus albicans.
C) The ovarian cycle begins.
D) Increased levels of FSH will be produced.

A) The corpus luteum is maintained until the placenta takes over its hormone-producing functions.

63

Select the correct statement about the special fetal blood vessels.
A) The distal parts of the umbilical arteries form the superior vesical arteries.
B) The fossa ovalis becomes the foramen ovale.
C) The umbilical vein becomes the ligamentum teres.
D) The hepatic portal vein forms from the umbilical artery.

C) The umbilical vein becomes the ligamentum teres.

64

Which of the following statements about the events of fertilization is not true?
A) The two pronuclei divide.
B) The head of the sperm forms the male pronucleus.
C) The secondary oocyte completes the second meiotic division.
D) Proteases and acrosin proteinases of the sperm disperse the cells of the corona radiata of the oocyte.

A) The two pronuclei divide.

65

The decidua basalis is ________.
A) destined to remain in the uterus after the birth of the infant
B) located between the developing embryo and the myometrium
C) not a maternal contribution to the placenta
D) the tissue that surrounds the uterine cavity face of the implanted embryo

B) located between the developing embryo and the myometrium

66

Capacitation occurs when secretions from the femaile start to deteriorate the outer membranes of the sperm. This takes around 8-10 hours. The breakdown of these enzymes eventually resuls in ___________?

the acrosomal enzye being released when is necessary for penetration into the egg.

67

What are two mechanisms that ensure monospermy and what is it called?

- fast block polysperm - membrane depolarization                                           - slow block - zonal inhibiting proteins                Called Cortical response

68

Upon entry of sperm, the secondary oocyte:
– Completes meiosis II
                  – Casts out the second polar body
 The ovum nucleus swells, and the two nuclei approach each other
 When fully swollen, the two nuclei are called___________. When the two ___________ come together this is fertalisation.

Pronuclei

69

What are the eents immeditely following sperm penetration?

A image thumb
70

How many days after fertilisation does implantation occur?

6-7 days

71

HOw does the blastocyst implant into the uterine wall?

Special proteins (integrins) on the trophoblast cells allow the blastocyst
to attach to receptors in the endometrium
– If the endometrium is not mature, the blastocyst detaches and
floats to a lower level of the uterus – tries to implant again
 Implantation is essential as the embryo cannot gain nourishment as it
increases in cell number.

72

After what period of time is the blastocysts called a fetus?

after 9 weeks until birth

73