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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (53):
1

Jane had been suffering through a severe cold and was complaining of a frontal headache and a dull, aching pain at the side of her face. What regions are likely to become sites of secondary infection following an upper respiratory tract infection?

a. The paranasal sinuses
b. The oral cavity
c. The oral cavity and larynx
d. The lower respiratory tract
c. The larynx and trachea

a. The paranasal sinuses

2

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.

a. ciliated mucous lining of the upper respiratory tract
b. abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa
c. action of the epiglottis
d. porous structure of turbinate bones

a. ciliated mucous lining of the upper respiratory tract

3

The respiratory membrane is the interface between________.

a. air in the upper respiratory tract and air in the lower respiratory tract

b. blood in capillaries and oxygen which enters cells for internal respiration

c. air in alveoli and blood in capillaries

d. oxygen bound to haemoglobin and oxygen dissolved in plasma

c. air in alveoli and blood in capillaries

4

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.

a. humidifying the air before it enters
b. protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations
c. warming the air before it enters
d. interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

d. interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

5

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?

a. chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells
b. as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
c. as carbonic acid in the plasma
d. chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin

b. as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

6

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.

a. difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure
b. pressure within the pleural cavity
c. pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
d. negative pressure in the intrapleural space

c. pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

7

What is ventilation-perfusion coupling?

a. Matching the amount of gas reaching the alveoli to the blood flow in pulmonary capillaries
b. matching the amount of oxygen exchanged for carbon dioxide in the alveoli to the exchange at the tissue level
c. matching the amount of gas reaching the alveoli to the amount that diffuses into the blood
d. matching the amount of blood flow through the body to the amount of oxygen in the air sacs

a. Matching the amount of gas reaching the alveoli to the blood flow in pulmonary capillaries

8

Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?

a. tuberculosis
b. coryza
c. pneumonia
d. emphysema

d. emphysema

9

Concerning the movement of an inhaled oxygen molecule, which of the following sequences is correct?

a. left atrium>trachea>alveolus>capillary
b. alveolus>capillary>left atrium>trachea
c. trachea>haemoglobin binding site>alveolus>left atrium
d. trachea>alveolus>capillary>left atrium

d. trachea>alveolus>capillary>left atrium

10

Of the following, the most powerful chemical stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.

a. fall in blood pH (acidosis)
b. rise in blood pH (alkalosis)
c. increase of carbon dioxide in blood
d. reduction in oxygen available to tissues

c. increase of carbon dioxide in blood

11

The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.

a. the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone
b. the smooth muscles of the lung
c. the visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs
d. surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

d. surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

12

The concentration of oxygen which is dissolved in the plasma is ________.

a. due to oxygen which is combined with plasma carrier molecules
b. about equal to the concentration of oxygen which is combined with haemoglobin
c. much less than the total concentration of oxygen carried in the blood
d. greater than the concentration of oxygen which is combined with haemoglobin

c. much less than the total concentration of oxygen carried in the blood

13

Which of the factors below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

a. solubility in water
b. temperature
c. molecular weight of the gas molecule
d. partial pressure gradient

d. partial pressure gradient

14

Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.

a. pons and midbrain
b. upper spinal cord and medulla
c. midbrain and medulla
d. medulla and pons

d. medulla and pons

15

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

a. equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
b. greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.
c. less than the pressure in the atmosphere.
d. greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.

d. greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.

16

Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?


a. Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation.
b. Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH.
c. More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
d. CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood.

c. More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.

17

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.

a. vital capacity
b. tidal volume
c. expiratory reserve volume
d. inspiratory capacity

a. vital capacity

18

In quiet breathing, expiration can occur without the involvement of muscle contraction. The factors responsible for this are:

a. surface tension of the alveolar fluid, and elastic recoil of the lungs
b. lung compliance, and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
c. elastic recoil of the lungs, and transpulmonary pressures
d. lung compliance and transpulmonary pressures

a. surface tension of the alveolar fluid, and elastic recoil of the lungs

19

Tidal volume is air ________.

a. inhaled after normal inspiration
b. forcibly expelled after normal expiration
c. remaining in the lungs after forced expiration
d. exchanged during normal breathing

d. exchanged during normal breathing

20

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.

a. alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
b. atria and alveolar sacs
c. respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts
d. respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs

a. alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

21

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.
A) secrete surfactant
B) trap dust and other debris
C) replace mucus in the alveoli
D) protect the lungs from bacterial invasion

A) secrete surfactant

22

What does the upper and lower respiratory tract comprise of?

Upper
Nose
Nasal cavity
Sinuses
Pharynx
Larynx

Lower
Trachea
Bronchus
Bronchioles
Smallest bronchioles
Alveoli

23

Which parts of the respiratory tract are conducting zones and which are respiratory zones?

CONDUCTING
Nose
Nasal cavity
Sinuses
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchus
Bronchioles

RESPIRATORY
Smallest bronchioles
Alveoli

24

What does the conducting zone do to the air on entry and exit?

cleanse, humidify and warm the incoming air and
reabsorb heat and water from outgoing air

25

What are the functions of the nasal cavity?

1. Filters the air (hair and turbulence)
2. Warms and humidifies the air (capillary plexuses
and mucus)
3. Traps particulates (mucus)
4. Kills bacteria (lysozyme and defensins)
5. Removes contaminated mucus (escalator)
6. Sneezing dislodges irritants

26

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

A) less than the pressure in the atmosphere.
B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
C) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.

B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.

27

6) Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
A) surface tension of water
B) surfactant
C) cartilage rings
D) pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

C) cartilage rings

28

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
A) pressure within the pleural cavity
B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
C) negative pressure in the intrapleural space
D) difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure

B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

29

The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________.
A) Boyle's law
B) Henry's law
C) Charles' law
D) Dalton's law

A) Boyle's law

30

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.
A) Henry's law
B) Boyle's law
C) Dalton's law
D) Charles' law

C) Dalton's law

31

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is________.
A) loss of oxygen in tissues
B) increase of carbon dioxide
C) pH (acidosis)
D) pH (alkalosis)

B) increase of carbon dioxide

32

Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.
A) the ventral respiratory group
B) the chemoreceptor center
C) Broca's center
D) the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus

A) the ventral respiratory group

33

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
B) about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
C) greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
D) not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules

A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form

34

Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away fromthe thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
A) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
B) compliance and transpulmonary pressures
C) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures
D) compliance and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

A) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

35

Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?
A) psychic stimuli
B) decrease in lactic acid levels
C) proprioceptors
D) simultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center

B) decrease in lactic acid levels

36

Which of the following determines lung compliance?
A) airway opening
B) flexibility of the thoracic cage
C) muscles of inspiration
D) alveolar surface tension

D) alveolar surface tension

37

Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?
A) Cartilage gradually decreases and disappears at the bronchioles.
B) Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.
C) Proportionally, smooth muscle decreases uniformly.
D) Lining of the tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium in the alveoli.

B) Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.

38

Tidal volume is air ________.
A) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration
B) exchanged during normal breathing
C) inhaled after normal inspiration
D) forcibly expelled after normal expiration

B) exchanged during normal breathing

39

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
A) solubility in water
B) partial pressure gradient
C) the temperature
D) molecular weight and size of the gas molecule

B) partial pressure gradient

40

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the________.
A) tidal volume
B) vital capacity
C) inspiratory capacity
D) expiratory reserve volume

B) vital capacity

41

Select the correct statement about the pharynx.
A) The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the laryngopharynx.
B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.
C) The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx.
D) The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.

B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.

42

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
A) diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax
B) diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax
C) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
D) external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax

C) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

43

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
A) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
B) chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells
C) as carbonic acid in the plasma
D) chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin

A) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

44

Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?
A) allows the lungs to inflate and deflate without friction
B) helps divide the thoracic cavity into three chambers
C) helps limit the spread of local infections
D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

45

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
A) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts
B) atria and alveolar sacs
C) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
D) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs

C) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

46

Inspiratory capacity is ________.
A) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
B) the total amount of exchangeable air
C) functional residual capacity
D) air inspired after a tidal inhalation

A) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

47

The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
A) as a passageway for air movement
B) cleansing the air
C) warming and humidifying the air
D) as the initiator of the cough reflex

D) as the initiator of the cough reflex

48

Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.
A) The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration.
B) The dorsal respiratory group neurons depolarize in a rhythmic way to establish the pattern of breathing.
C) The pontine respirator group (PRG) continuously stimulates the medulla to provide inspiratory drive.
D) The ventral respiratory group is contained within the pons.

A) The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration.

49

Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
A) partial pressure of oxygen
B) temperature
C) partial pressure of carbon dioxide
D) number of red blood cells

D) number of red blood cells

50

The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.
A) the smooth muscles of the lung
B) the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone
C) the visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs
D) surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

D) surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

51

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________
.A) temperature is lower at higher altitudes
B) basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes
C) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes
D) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

D) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

52

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.
A) ciliated mucous lining in the nose
B) abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa
C) porous structure of turbinate bones
D) action of the epiglottis

A) ciliated mucous lining in the nose

53

Which of the following is not possible?
A) Gas flow equals pressure gradient over resistance.
B) Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance.
C) Resistance equals pressure gradient over gas flow.
D) The amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveoli is directly proportional to the difference in pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmosphere and the alveoli.

B) Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance.