Digestive Glands Flashcards Preview

GI System Midterm > Digestive Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive Glands Deck (69):
1

Functions of digestive glands

lubricative, protective, digestive, absorptive

2

3 major glands

salivary, exocrine and liver

3

What 3 glands are included in the salivary gland

parotid, submandibular, sublingual

4

Exocrine gland

secrete something into a duct and they can be simple or compound

5

Function of excretory duct

divided into simple (unbranched) and branched or compound (branched)

6

Function of secretory unit

tubular or alveolar (acinar)

7

Secretory products

mucous or serous

8

Secretory mechanism

merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine

9

What is merocrine

exocytosis

10

What is holocrine

whole cell

11

What is apocrine

gland releases its product together with small amount of apical cytoplasm

12

What is the classification of salivary glands

branched tubuloalveolar

13

Contents of saliva

proteins, glycoproteins, ions, water, immunoglobulin

14

What innervation is the production of saliva

ANS

15

What kind of fluid does submandibular make

mixed- mucous and serous

16

What kind of fluid does sublingual gland make

mucous

17

What kind of fluid does parotid gland make

serous

18

Main functions of saliva

lubrication, protection, digestion

19

What is involved in protective mechanism of saliva

lysozymes, lactoferrin, IgA

20

What is involved in digestive function of saliva

amylase and lipase

21

Enzymes in the parotid gland

amylase, peroxidase, lysozyme

22

Which gland is the primary target in mumps and rabies

parotid gland

23

S/S of mumps

swelling of parotid gland

24

What type of gland is sublingual classified as

branched tubuloalveolar

25

T/F The pancreas has only exocrine function

F- it has both exocrine and endocrine

26

What is the endocrine function of the pancreas

regulation of glucose metabolism by hormones secreted into bloodstream

27

What is the endocrine component

islet of Langerhans

28

What is the functional unit of the exocrine pancreas

acinus

29

Function of centroacinar cells

*specific characteristic of the pancreas*
involved in digestion
secrete bicarbonate

30

What is the function of the center of the acinus

secretory function

31

Other name for centroacinar cells

duct cells

32

What hormone helps centeracinar cells secrete bicarb

secretin

33

Why does the pancreas want to secrete bicarb

regulate the acidity of the duodenum

34

What hormone does the pancreas secrete

CCK- cholecystokinin and secretin

35

Function of CCK

stimulates release of zymogen

36

Which of the pancreatic secretions will increase on protein-rich diet

protease

37

What pancreatic secretion will be increased with carbohydrate-rich diet

amylases

38

Relationship between amylase and insulin

amylase gene expression regulated by insulin

39

How does acute pancreatitis occur

premature activation of pancreatic enzymes and inactivation of trypsin inhibitor causing pancreas to digest itself

40

What can cause acute pancreatitis

heavy meals or excessive alcohol ingestion

41

What two things supply the liver with blood

portal vein and hepatic artery

42

Structural and functional unit of the liver

hepatic lobule

43

What does a hepatic lobue consist of

anastomosing plates of hepatocytes

44

What is the central venule?

core of hepatic lobule that collects sinusoidal blood containing mixture of blood from portal vein and hepatic artery

45

What is the classic hepatic lobule

hexagonal lobule, surrounding central vein
portal triads at angles

46

What is the portal lobule characteristics

triangular arrangement
center of triangle is the bile duct
angles are the central veins of 3 hepatic lobules

47

What is the liver acinus based on

oxygen gradient of venous sinusoids of adjacent lobules

48

How many zones if the liver acinus divided into

3 based on blood supply to hepatocytes

49

Where are sinusoids located?

between the radiating rows of hepatocytes

50

Function of sinusoids

receive oxygen-rich blood from hepatic artery and nutrients from intestine via portal vein

51

Specialized macrophages in the liver

Kupffer cells

52

3 components of portal triad

hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, and common bile duct

53

What makes up the common bile duct?

cystic duct and hepatic duct

54

Where does the common bile duct drain into?

duodenum

55

Function of Kupffer cells

break down old red blood cells

56

Endothelium of liver

discontinuous

57

Where is the space of Disse

space between fenestrated endothelium and cord of hepatocytes

58

Function of space of Disse

permits blood plasma to wash freely over hepatocytes

59

Where are Ito cells located

in the space of disse

60

Function of Ito cells

storage sites for fat and vitamin A

61

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in what structure of the liver..

hepatocyte

62

Function of peroxisomes in the liver

break down into oxygen and water to make hydrogen peroxidase

63

Function of hepatocytes as SER

1. synthesis of cholesterol and bile salts
2. conjugation of bilirubin
3. breakdown glycogen into glucose
4. detoxification of lipid-soluble drugs

64

Function of bile

essential for breaking own things in the duodenum

65

How is bilirubin made

via heme catabolism

66

What protein does the bilirubin complex with in the blood

albumin

67

Long-term consumption of ethanol can lead to....

fatty live

68

Main function of the gallbladder

storage, concentration, and release of bile

69

2 main causes of gallstones

cholesterol stones or pigment stones