Embryology of GI System Flashcards Preview

GI System Midterm > Embryology of GI System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Embryology of GI System Deck (75):
1

Foregut

esophagus, stomach, 1/2 duodenum, liver gallbladder, pancreas, spleen

2

Blood supply to foregut

celiac artery

3

Preganglionic sympathetic innervation of foregut

T5-T9

4

Preaortic ganglion sympathetic innervation for foregut

celiac

5

Postganglionic axons of sympathetic foregut

celiac artery

6

Preganglionic parasympathetic innervation for foregut

brainstem

7

Parasymp innervation for foregut

vagus n

8

Location of parasymp foregut ganglia

organ walla

9

Midgut organs

1/2 duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, 2/3 transverse colon

10

Blood supply to the midgut

superior mesenteric artery

11

Preganglionic sympathetic innervation for midgut

T9-T12

12

Preaortic ganglion for sympathetic midgut

superior mesenteric

13

Postganglionic axons for sympathetic midgut

superior mesenteric a

14

Preganglionic bodies for parasymp midgut

brainstem

15

Parasymp innervation for midgut

vagus n

16

Hindgut organs

1/3 transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, upper anal canal

17

Blood supply for hindgut

inferior mesenteric a

18

Preganglionic bodies for sympathetic innervation

T12-L2

19

Preaortic ganglion for sympathetic hindgut

Innferior mesenteric

20

Postganglionic sympathetic innervation for hindgut

inferior mesenteric a

21

Preganglionic bodies for parasymp hindgut

S2-S4

22

Nerves for parasymp innervation

pelvic splanchnic nerves

23

Retinoic acid in GI development

creates gradient and for certain transcription factors to be expressed in different areas of the gut

24

Proximal to distal concentration of distal gut tube

Increasing retinoic acid

25

Sonic Hedgehog in gut tube development

initiates interaction between epithelium and mesenchyme

26

Where is epithelium derived from

endoderm

27

Where is mesenchyme derived from

splanchnic mesoderm

28

What is derived from the endoderm

epithelium and glands

29

What is derived from splanchnic mesoderm

lamina proria, submucosa, muscularis layers, serosa/adventitia

30

What mesesntery is the gut tube suspended by?

doral

31

What forms from the ventral mesentery

from developing liver- falciform ligament, lesser omentum

32

What does the esophagus form from

laryngeotracheal diverticulum

33

How does tracheoesophageal fistula form

failure of tracheoesophageal septum to fuse completely and separate respiratory and GI system

34

What occurs with an esophageal atresia

esophagus ends in blind pouch

35

Esophageal stenosis

narrowed esophagus

36

Esophageal atresia

occluded esophagus

37

What can occur due to incomplete recanalization

esophageal stenosis or atresia

38

3 ways for esophageal replacement

colon interposition, gastric tube esophagoplasty, gastric transposition

39

Coloninterposition

section of colon taken and joined to esophagus above and stomach below

40

Gastric tube esophagoplasty

longitudinal segment from stomach is pulled up into chest and joined to esophagus

41

Gastric transposition

whole stomach freed and moved into thoracic cavity and attached to upper end of esophagus

42

Corkscrew esophagus

esophagus shows corkscrew appearance

43

Zenker's diverticulum

out pocketing of esophagus between constrictor muscles that can get food or fluid trapped in it

44

Which part of the stomach develops from the dorsal mesentery

greater curvature

45

Which part of the stomach develops from the ventral mesentery

lesser curvature

46

Which side of the stomach grows faster

dorsal side (left)

47

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

2-3 weeks after birth, projectile vomit with no bile , scaphoid abdomen

48

Double bubble sign

duodenal atresia- air in stomach and into duodenum

49

What mesentery do the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts develop in

ventral mesentery

50

Molecular regulation of liver by

FGF2 and BMP

51

Growth of the liver divides ventral mesentery into..

falciform ligament and lesser omentum

52

Ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant of...

ductus venosus

53

Legamentum terest hepatis is remnant of...

Left umbilical vein

54

S/S of extrahepatic biliary atresia

jaundice, dark urine, pale stool

55

Cause of extrahepatic biliary atresia

incomplete canalization of bile duct

56

Major regulators of the pancreas

Islets of langerhan

57

Which pancreatic bud makes minor papilla

dorsal

58

Which pancreatic bud makes major papilla

ventral

59

Rotation and fixation of midgut

normal physiologic herniation, gut loops into umbilical cord, loop rotates 90 degrees around SMA

60

Volvulus

abnormal twisting of the intestine causing obstruction

61

Bilious Emesis

starts throwing up bile vomit (green)

62

What can cause bilious emesis

malrotation within volvulus `

63

Intussusception

enfolding of one segment of intestine within another

64

Omphalocele

herniation of gut tube that doesn't come back and is covered by umbilical cord

65

Gastroschisis

herniation of gut tube not covered by umbilical cord

66

How does gastroschisis occur

failure of anterior abdominal wall musculature to close during folding

67

Prune Belly

anterior abdominal wall is deficient of absent

68

Ileal/Meckel's diverticulum is a remnant of..

vitelline duct

69

Rule of 2's

location 2 feet proximal to ieocecal valve in adults, half of those who are symptomatic are younger than 2 years of age

70

What happens during an umbilical hernia

gut pushes skin and fascia out ahead of it

71

Hirschsprung's disease

megacolon- large pockets of feces in part of colon that doesn't work

72

What is the only proven treatment for Hirschsprung's disease

surgery

73

Defects in partitioning of the cloaca

rectourethral fistula (or rectoprostatic/rectovaginal)

74

Low anorectal malformation

anal canal ends as bind sac below pelvic diaphragm

75

High anorectal malformation

rectum ends as a blind pouch above the pelvic diaphragm