Flashcards in Organs of the Gastrointestinal Tract #4,5 Deck (77):
What level does the esophagus pierce the diaphragm?
Where does the esophagus enter the stomach
Where is the esophageal hiatus located?
What is located at T8?
inferior vena cava
What is located at T12?
"Sliding" hiatal hernia
- esophageal hiatus of diaphragm enlarges or weakens
- abdominal esophagus and parts of stomach (cardia and/or fundus) herniate into the thorax
defect in diaphragm next to the esophageal hiatus
*stomach but NOT esophagus herniates
What level is the stomach located?
L end @ T10-11
R end @ L1-2
What is the entrance of the stomach into the duodenum called?
What are the folds of the stomach called
Where is the small intestine located?
between the stomach and large intestine
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What level is the location of the duodenum?
How long is the duodenum?
10 inches long
What are the 4 subdivisions of the duodenum?
superior, descending, horizontal, and ascending
Is the duodenum primary or secondarily retroperiotneal?
secondary except for 1st and 4th part
Characteristics of the superior duodenum
- start at pyloric sphincter
- about 2 inches long
- held in place by hepatoduodenal ligament
- head of pancreas is inferior
Characteristics of descending duodenum
- about 3 inches long
*all retroperitoneal secondarily
Characteristics of horizontal duodenum
superior mesenteric a and v and root of mesentery cross anterior
Characteristics of the ascending duodenum
*held in place by suspensory ligament
What ligament suspends the ascending duodenum?
- Ligament of Treitz
What is the function of the suspensory ligament (Treitz)
anchor 4th part of duodenum to R crus of diaphragm
How long is the jejunum/ileum?
*held to posterior wall by THE mesentery
How long is the jejunum?
Characteristics of the jejunum
simple vascular arcades
long vasa recta
more plicae circularis
What is the plicae circularis
the circular folds of the small intestine
How long is the ileum?
Characteristics of the ileum
-compound vascular arcades
- shorter vasa recta
- fewer plicae circularis
What organ is Meckel's Diverticulum associated with?
What is Meckel's Diverticulum?
Mot common congenital anomoly of small intestine
What is Meckel's Diverticulum a remnant of?
Function of THE mesentery in the small intestines
attaches the jejunum and ileum to posterior body wall
Characteristics of large intestine
appendices epiplociae (epiploic appendages)
Functions of large intestine
Function of taenia coli
3 bands of longitudinal muscle on the outside of colon
produced by taenia coli
slow movement of feces
What is unique about the cecum
no epiploic appenendages
not a true sphincter
Characteristics of the vermiform appendix
junction of 3 taenia coli
9-10 cm long
What is unique about both the ascending and descending colon
both are secondarily retroperitoneal
What is unique about the transverse the sigmoid colon
both are intraperitoneal
What is the anal rectal line
line joining the tops of the anal columns
What is the rectal ampulla
dilated terminal part of rectum
What are the 3 transverse rectal folds?
superior, intermediate, inferior
What is the pectinate line
line joining the inferior ends of the anal valves
Where is the spleen located
btwn stomach and diaphragm
Two ligaments associated with the spleen
From what mesentery is the spleen formed from?
dorsal mesentery from mesoderm
Where is the pancreas located?
Is the pancreas retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal?
4 parts of the pancreas
tail, body, neck, head
From what mesentery is the pancreas from?
ventral mesentery from ventral bud and a larger dorsal but from dorsal mesentery
How do the ventral and dorsal buds come together for the pancreas?
rotation of the stomach and duodenum beings them together
What forms the duodenal papilla
the common hepatopancreatic ampulla
What makes up the common hepatopancreatic ampulla
bile duct, pancreatic duct, 2nd part of duodenum
Where is the liver located in the abdomen?
right upper quadrant
What is the ligament on the anterior side
What are the 4 lobes of the liver
Right, Left, Caudate, Quadrate
What defines the bare area of the liver
the anterior, posterior, left and right coronary ligaments
What does the bare area of the liver include
where the IVC is posterior to the liver and the hepatic hepatic veins drain into it
What is on the visceral surface of the liver
hepatic fossa for gallbladder
lobes of the liver
Feature of the visceral surface of the liver
hepatic fossa for gallbladder
What does the porta hepatis transmit
What is in the portal triad
hepatic artery (proper)
portal hepatic vein
common bile duct
What is the ligamentum teres a remnant of
ubliterated umbilical vein
What is the ligamentum venosum a remnant of
What was the function of the fuctus venosis
connect the umbilical vein with IVC
What is the peritoneal attachment of the falciform ligament
What is the peritoneal attachment of the lesser omentum
hepatoduodenal and hepatogastric ligaments
What is the purpose of the peritoneal attachments of the liver
to anchor the liver to the stomach
Where is the gallbladder located
right upper quadrant in the hepatic fossa
9/10th costal cartilage
What are the 3 parts of the gall bladder
fundus, body, neck
What form the common hepatic duct
R hepatic duct and L hepatic duct
What are the extrahepatic bile passages
1. R hepatic duct
2. L hepatic duct (forming common hepatic duct)
3. Cystic duct
4. Common bile duct
What forms the common bile duct
the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct
Where does the bile duct enter the duodenum
2nd part of duodenum with pancreatic duct
What is the major duodenal papilla
where the pancreatic duct and common bile duct connect to the duodenum