Organs of the Gastrointestinal Tract #4,5 Flashcards Preview

GI System Midterm > Organs of the Gastrointestinal Tract #4,5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organs of the Gastrointestinal Tract #4,5 Deck (77):
1

What level does the esophagus pierce the diaphragm?

T10

2

Where does the esophagus enter the stomach

T11

3

Where is the esophageal hiatus located?

T10

4

What is located at T8?

inferior vena cava

5

What is located at T12?

Aorta

6

"Sliding" hiatal hernia

- esophageal hiatus of diaphragm enlarges or weakens
- abdominal esophagus and parts of stomach (cardia and/or fundus) herniate into the thorax

7

Paraesophageal hernia

defect in diaphragm next to the esophageal hiatus
*stomach but NOT esophagus herniates

8

What level is the stomach located?

L end @ T10-11
R end @ L1-2

9

What is the entrance of the stomach into the duodenum called?

pyloric orifice

10

What are the folds of the stomach called

rugae

11

Where is the small intestine located?

between the stomach and large intestine

12

What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

13

What level is the location of the duodenum?

L1-L4

14

How long is the duodenum?

10 inches long

15

What are the 4 subdivisions of the duodenum?

superior, descending, horizontal, and ascending

16

Is the duodenum primary or secondarily retroperiotneal?

secondary except for 1st and 4th part

17

Characteristics of the superior duodenum

- start at pyloric sphincter
- about 2 inches long
- held in place by hepatoduodenal ligament
- head of pancreas is inferior

18

Characteristics of descending duodenum

- about 3 inches long
*all retroperitoneal secondarily

19

Characteristics of horizontal duodenum

superior mesenteric a and v and root of mesentery cross anterior

20

Characteristics of the ascending duodenum

*becomes intraperitoneal
*held in place by suspensory ligament

21

What ligament suspends the ascending duodenum?

- Ligament of Treitz

22

What is the function of the suspensory ligament (Treitz)

anchor 4th part of duodenum to R crus of diaphragm

23

How long is the jejunum/ileum?

20 feet
*very mobile
*held to posterior wall by THE mesentery

24

How long is the jejunum?

8-10 feet

25

Characteristics of the jejunum

simple vascular arcades
long vasa recta
more vascular
greater diameter
more plicae circularis

26

What is the plicae circularis

the circular folds of the small intestine

27

How long is the ileum?

10-12 feet

28

Characteristics of the ileum

-compound vascular arcades
- shorter vasa recta
-less vascular
-smaller diameter
- fewer plicae circularis

29

What organ is Meckel's Diverticulum associated with?

Ileum

30

What is Meckel's Diverticulum?

Mot common congenital anomoly of small intestine

31

What is Meckel's Diverticulum a remnant of?

vitelline duct

32

Function of THE mesentery in the small intestines

attaches the jejunum and ileum to posterior body wall

33

Characteristics of large intestine

taenia coli
appendices epiplociae (epiploic appendages)

34

Functions of large intestine

fecal formation
transport
evacuation
water absorption
mucus secretion

35

Function of taenia coli

3 bands of longitudinal muscle on the outside of colon

36

Haustrae function

produced by taenia coli
slow movement of feces

37

What is unique about the cecum

no epiploic appenendages
not a true sphincter

38

Characteristics of the vermiform appendix

junction of 3 taenia coli
9-10 cm long

39

What is unique about both the ascending and descending colon

both are secondarily retroperitoneal

40

What is unique about the transverse the sigmoid colon

both are intraperitoneal

41

What is the anal rectal line

line joining the tops of the anal columns

42

What is the rectal ampulla

dilated terminal part of rectum

43

What are the 3 transverse rectal folds?

superior, intermediate, inferior

44

What is the pectinate line

line joining the inferior ends of the anal valves

45

Where is the spleen located

ribs 9/10/11
midaxillary lines
btwn stomach and diaphragm

46

Two ligaments associated with the spleen

gastrosplenic
splenorenal

47

From what mesentery is the spleen formed from?

dorsal mesentery from mesoderm

48

Where is the pancreas located?

L1/L2

49

Is the pancreas retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal?

2ndarily retroperitoneal

50

4 parts of the pancreas

tail, body, neck, head

51

From what mesentery is the pancreas from?

ventral mesentery from ventral bud and a larger dorsal but from dorsal mesentery

52

How do the ventral and dorsal buds come together for the pancreas?

rotation of the stomach and duodenum beings them together

53

What forms the duodenal papilla

the common hepatopancreatic ampulla

54

What makes up the common hepatopancreatic ampulla

bile duct, pancreatic duct, 2nd part of duodenum

55

Where is the liver located in the abdomen?

right upper quadrant

56

What is the ligament on the anterior side

falciform ligment

57

What are the 4 lobes of the liver

Right, Left, Caudate, Quadrate

58

What defines the bare area of the liver

the anterior, posterior, left and right coronary ligaments

59

What does the bare area of the liver include

where the IVC is posterior to the liver and the hepatic hepatic veins drain into it

60

What is on the visceral surface of the liver

ligamentum venosum
round ligament
hepatic fossa for gallbladder
lobes of the liver

61

Feature of the visceral surface of the liver

porta hepatis
ligamentum teres
ligamentum venosum
hepatic fossa for gallbladder

62

What does the porta hepatis transmit

portal triad

63

What is in the portal triad

hepatic artery (proper)
portal hepatic vein
common bile duct

64

What is the ligamentum teres a remnant of

ubliterated umbilical vein

65

What is the ligamentum venosum a remnant of

ductus venosis

66

What was the function of the fuctus venosis

connect the umbilical vein with IVC

67

What is the peritoneal attachment of the falciform ligament

ligamentum teres

68

What is the peritoneal attachment of the lesser omentum

hepatoduodenal and hepatogastric ligaments

69

What is the purpose of the peritoneal attachments of the liver

to anchor the liver to the stomach

70

Where is the gallbladder located

right upper quadrant in the hepatic fossa
9/10th costal cartilage

71

What are the 3 parts of the gall bladder

fundus, body, neck

72

What form the common hepatic duct

R hepatic duct and L hepatic duct

73

What are the extrahepatic bile passages

1. R hepatic duct
2. L hepatic duct (forming common hepatic duct)
3. Cystic duct
4. Common bile duct

74

What forms the common bile duct

the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct

75

Where does the bile duct enter the duodenum

2nd part of duodenum with pancreatic duct

76

What is the major duodenal papilla

where the pancreatic duct and common bile duct connect to the duodenum

77

What is the minor duodenal papilla

where the accessory pancreatic duct enters the duodenum