Digestive Pt 1 thru slide 85 Flashcards Preview

AP II B5 Digestive > Digestive Pt 1 thru slide 85 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive Pt 1 thru slide 85 Deck (144)
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1

Refers to the use of the nutrients gained from food to
Build and maintain the structures of the body
Provide energy needed to keep us alive

Metabolism

2

Also refers to interactive set of chemical pathways that make life possible

Metabolism

3

Before food can be used for energy, growth and maintenance, and regulation of bodily functions, the nutrients have to be ______

Assimilated

4

when nutrient molecules enter cells and undergo many chemical changes

Assimilation

5

The act of breaking food molecules down into smaller molecular compounds that, in-turn, releases energy

Catabolism (a decomposition process)

6

The act of building nutrient molecules into large molecular compounds that requires the use of energy

Anabolism (a synthesis process)

7

Catabolism released energy in two forms:

1. Thermal Energy (heat)

2. Chemical Energy

8

Released in frequent, small bursts or otherwise it would “cook” the cell it is being released in

____ energy is practically useless as an energy source for cells because it can’t be used to carry out work

This heat that gets released from all cells collectively maintains the body temperature for homeostasis

Thermal energy (heat)

9

Cannot be used directly for biological reactions
It first has to be transferred into the high-energy molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Chemical Energy

10

The “universal biological currency”

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

11

___ are readily absorbed in their original form:

Micronutrients

12

____ need to e small enough to be absorbed

Macronutrients

13

Micronutrients:

-28 considered essential

Do not provide calories of energy

Vitamins & Minerals

14

Macronutrients:

Proteins
Fats
Carbohydrates

15

Calories of energy per Macronutrient:

Protein 4 cals
Carbohydrate 4 cals
Lipids9 cals

16

Cheif energy source fo the brain

Glucose

17

Digestion of carbs requires ezymes called:

Amylases

18

Principle monosaccharide
Basic source of energy for cells
Found in things like fruits

Glucose

19

Principle monosaccharide (converted to glucose by liver)
Basic source of energy for cells
Found in things like fruits

Fructose

20

Principle monosaccharide (converted to glucose by liver)
Found mostly in dairy products (milk, cheese, butter)

Galactose

21

Absorb-able form of carbohydrates:

Glucose
Fructose
Galactose

22

Byproduct of polysaccharide (starch) digestion
Found in excess in beer and some liquor (Barley)

Maltose

23

Glucose + Galactose
Principle sugar found in milk

Lactose

24

Glucose + Fructose
Ordinary table sugar

Sucrose

25

Disaccharides unable to be absorbed as is:

Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose

26

Polysaccharides unable to be absorbed as is or at all:

Starches
Glycogen
Cellulose (no absorbed or broken down)

27

Amylose and amylopectin combined
Potatoes, Corn, Oats, Rice

Starches

28

The stored form of glucose in the body
Found in the liver, muscle tissue, and some glial brain cells

Glycogen

29

Chemical name for fiber
Fruit skins, whole-grain rice (the husk is the fiber), legumes (the shell is the fiber), corn (skin on kernel is the fiber)

Cellulose

30

Carbohydrates can be classified in the diet as:

Simple

Complex