Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (32)
What does the digestive system do?
Name parts of the digestive system.
Name the accessory organs.
Salivary glands (3 pairs)
What are intestinal secretions?
main constituents are water, mucus and mineral salts. Peptidase breakdown polypeptides into smaller peptides and amino acids. Lipase emulsifies fats to fatty acids and glycerol. Sucrase, maltase and lactase complete digestion of carbohydrates.
What do the accessory organs do?
aid the processes of ingestion, digestion and absorption
Describe the Gall bladder?
Storage of bile produced by the liver. pH of 8. Stores 30-60 mls per day. water, mineral salts, mucous, bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol. Emulsify fats. Cholesterol, fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) made soluble for absorption. Bilirubin - a waste product from the breakdown of red blood cells. Converted to stercobilin to colour (brown) and deodorise faeces.
Absorption water, mineral salts, vitamins, drugs.
Microbial activity, synthesise vitamin K and folic acid.
Mass movement slow peristalsis (Gastrocolic reflex).
Large intestine 1.5 m long.
What is the function of the oesophagus in pregnancy?
Relaxation of lower oesophageal sphincter-- regurgitation-- heartburn.
What is the function of the stomach in pregnancy?
pulping of food
May cause nausea
What is the function of the small intestine in pregnancy?
iron Fe absorption
What is the function of the colon in pregnancy?
may cause constipation
What are the causes of increased appetite and thirst?
Increased appetite and thirst particularly in the first half of the pregnancy. Appetite may be promoted by several hormones including leptin. Leptin usually suppresses food intake but in pregnancy, leptin levels increase. In advanced pregnancy, both appetite ad capacity for food intake decline owing to upward gastric displacement and pressure from the gravid uterus.
Explain food craving and aversions.
Cravings for fruit and highly flavoured foods such as pickles, kippers and cheese. The sensitivity of taste buds is dulled in pregnancy and so highly seasoned foods are more appreciated. Common aversions such as tea, coffee, meat, fried foods and eggs, alcohol and smoking. Pica, an extreme craving for non- nutritious substance, e.g. soap, toothpaste, ice, coal
What changes does the mouth go through during pregnancy?
The gums become oedematous, soft and spongy during pregnancy. Probably due to the effect of oestrogen, which may lead to bleeding. Gingivitis occurs as food debris and calcified dental plaque collect in the minute space between tooth and the gum, causing irritation and inflammation.
Why do women experience heartburn during pregnancy?
The increased abdominal pressure due to enlarging uterus causes a shift in pressure gradient between abdomen and thorax. The angle of the gastro-oesophageal junction is altered and the lower oesophageal sphincter is displaced into the negative pressure on the intrathorcic cavity. These mechanical changes together with the relaxing effect of the progesterone which reduces gastrointestinal contents into the lower oesophagus leading to heartburn.
Advice for heartburn
Gastric reflux can be limited by taking more frequent meals, avoidance of seasoned food, postural influences. Antacid preparations.
Why do women experience nausea and vomiting?
Women may experience symptoms throughout the day or in the evening, Unclear etiology. Due to rising levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) during pregnancy.
Why do women experience abdominal bloating and distension?
It's the effect of progesterone combined with the pressure of the gravid uterus on the rectrosigmoid colon. Decreases the motility of the small intestine and colon. Increased transit time in the second and third trimesters.
Explain why women experience constipation?
May be the result of progesterone levels in pregnancy, causing reduction in gastric motility and increased gastric transit time. It may be associated with the poor dietary fibre intake and may cause abdominal discomfort and pain during defecation. May be a predisposing factor for haemorrhoids.
What are haemorrhoids?
Haemorrhoids are swollen veins at or near the anus. unclear etiology, but predisposing factors include history of constipation, a low fibre and low fluid diet and bowel disease.
What are the changes in the gall bladder?
Progesterone affects the smooth tone of the gallbladder resulting in reduced muscle tone, increased bile volume storage and decreased emptying rate. This promotes bile stasis an increases concentrated bile content which can predispose to physiological cholestasis and pruitis.
What are the changes in the liver?
Liver size is unchanged but the third trimester it is forced into a more superior posterior position to the right. Increased hepatic perfusion after 26 weeks gestation is due to the increase in portal venous return
What impact can poor nutrition have on the fetus?
low birth weight, pre term birth and birth defects such as neural tube defects
How much folic acid should women take?
400 mcg daily
How much vitamin d should women take?
10 mcg daily for healthy bones, teach and growing fetus
What can regular drinking and binge drinking lead to?
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)
What is the safe limit of alcohol that women can drink while pregnant?
There is no safe limit
What is normal weight gain in pregnancy?
8.5 kg and 16.5 kg
Depending on the size of the baby, amount of amniotic fluid and size ad placenta
How much do energy levels increase during pregnancy?
Around 200 calories but only in the 3rd trimester