Digestive System Organology chp 31 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Digestive System Organology chp 31 Deck (68):
1

Digestive system

concerned w breakdown of food and absorption of nutrients
Organs exist as continuous tube from oral cavity to anus

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3 other names of digestive system

Digestive tract, Gastrointestinal tract, Alimentary canal

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Peritoneum

Large, highly folded, serous membrane located in abdomen

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Parietal peritoneum

lines inner surface of abd wall

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Visceral peritoneum

located on surface of organs of abd

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Peritoneal cavity

btw parietal and visceral layers, potential space filled w thin film of fluid
Divided into 2 sacs

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Greater Sac

main portion, from diaphragm to pelvic floor, and ant abd wall to post abd wall

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Lesser Sac (omental bursa)

smaller portion, post to stomach and extending upward behind liver and downward to greater omentum

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Epiploic foramen (of Winslow)

only opening btw greater and lesser sac

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Epiploic foramen is bounded by:

Portal vein, hepatic artery proper, bile duct (in lesser omentum)
Duodenum (inf)
IVC (post)
Liver (sup)

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Peritoneal folds and membranes

reflections of visceral peritoneum

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Falciform ligament

extends from liver to ant abd wall
in free edge, has round ligament of liver (obliterated umbilical vein)

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Greater Omentum

extends from greater curvature of stomach to transverse colon, forming fatty apron over small intestines

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Lesser Omentum

extends from lesser curvature of stomach to liver
right free edge contains bile duct, portal vein and hepatic artery proper

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Mesentary

supports and suspends jejunum and ileum from post abd wall

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Transverse Mesocolon

suspends transverse colon from post abd wall

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Sigmoid Mesocolon

suspends sigmoid colon from post abd wall

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Define and name the retroperitoneal structures:

structures located behind peritoneum directly on post abd wall -
Duodenum, Asc colon, Des colon, pancreas, kidney and ureter, aorta and IVC

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Oral cavity (mouth) contents:

tongue, teeth, and openings of salivary gland

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Tongue

skeletal muscular organ
fxns: sense of taste, mastication, and mvmt of food

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# and types of teeth

32 teeth
Incisors, canines, premolars, and molars

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Salivary glands

3 pairs, exocrine glands (drained by duct) empty saliva (gland secretions) drain into oral cavity

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Parotid gland

below ear, drained by parotid duct (Stensen's duct)

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Submandibular gland

below mandible and drained by submandibular duct (Wharton's duct/submaxillary gland)

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Sublingual gland

below tongue, drained by sublingual ducts (of Bartholin and Rivinus)

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Pharynx

Skeletal muscle, fxns in swallowing

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3 parts of Pharynx

Nasopharynx - post to nasal cavity
Oropharynx - post to oral cavity
Laryngopharynx (hypopharynx) - post to larynx, continuous w esophagus

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Esophagus

muscular tube, 25 cm long, from lower end of pharynx above to cardiac opening of stomach below

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3 Regional parts of Esophagus

Cervical - in neck, post to trachea
Thoracic - in thorax, post to trachea in upper half and post to heart in lower half
Abdominal - pierces diaphragm at esophageal opening, enters abd, runs short course, terminates by joining stomach (gastroesphageal jxn)

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Stomach

digestive organ responsible for storage of food
3 parts: Fundus - above level of entrance of esophagus
Body - btw fundus and pyloric part, main mass
Pyloric - extends right from lower body, ends at pyloric opening (btw opening of stomach and first part of duodenum), has pyloric sphincter - circular smooth muscle surrounding pyloric opening

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2 curvatures of stomach:

Great curvature - Convex
*courses over fundus and inf on left side of stomach to inf side of pyloris
*has greater omentum (connective tissue btw stomach and transverse colon
Lesser curvature - Concave
*right margin on stomach
*has lesser omentum (btw stomach and liver)

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2 openings of stomach:

Cardiac opening - btw esophagus and stomach cavities (at jxn of greater and lesser curvatures)
Pyloric opening - btw stomach and 1st part of duodenum

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Rugae

folds presented on internal surface of stomach

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Small Intestine

btw pyloric sphincter (connection to stomach) and ileocecal jxn (connection to large intestine)
7 m long, decreases in diameter thru length

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3 subdivisions of small intestines:

Duodenum, jejunum (proximal 2/5ths), ileum (distal 3/5ths),

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Duodenum

from pyloric sphincter to jejunum, C-shaped, concave medial border has openings of liver, gall bladder and pancreas ducts
4 parts: first (superior)
second (des) - receives bile and pancreatic juices
third (horizontal)
fourth (asc) - courses upward to suspensory ligament of Treitz leading to duodenojejunal flexture

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Jejunum and ileum

no morph line of demarcation btw them
highly coiled, surrounded/suspended from post abd wall by connective tissue - Mesentary

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Ileocecal jxn

jxn of ileum of SI and cecum of LI
ileocecal opening guarded by ileocecal valve (not sphincteric)

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Large intestine (colon)

from ileocecal jxn to anus
Divided into 7 parts

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Cecum (of LI)

lies at and below level of entrance of ileum

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Appendix

lymphatic organ attached to posteromedial wall to liver

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Ascending colon (of LI)

extends sup from right side of post abd wall to liver, can't course above liver, it bends, forming right colic (hepatic flexure) and courses left

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Transverse colon (of LI)

extends from right colic flexure to spleen on left, then bends forming left colic (splenic flexure)

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Descending colon (of LI)

from left colic flexure inf along left side of post abd wall

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Sigmoid colon (of LI)

from descending colon to pelvis, continuous w rectum
forms loop - shape/position depend on degree of filling

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Large intestine diagram











Ileocecal jxn ←Ileum

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Rectum

btw sigmoid colon and anus
anal verge - boundary btw int and ext
Pecinate or dentate line - boundary btw int mucosa and ext epithelium
Int and ext hemorrhoids, more sensitivity below, less above

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Anus

sphincteric muscle at termination of anal canal, fxns in retention of feces

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Celiac Trunk

short, from aorta immediately below aortic opening of diaphragm, embedded in celiac plexus
Gives off 3 branches: S.L.C, from body's left to right = Left gastric a., splenic a., common hepatic a.

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Left Gastric a.

courses left along lesser curvature of stomach, gives off several esophageal branches

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Splenic a.

large branch, tortuous course along upper margin of pancreas to spleen, gives off Left Gastroepiploic (gastro-omental) a. to greater curvature of stomach
also gives off several short gastric arteries supplying fundus of stomach

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Common Hepatic a.

courses right dividing into hepatic artery proper and gastroduodenal a.

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Hepatic artery proper

ascends in lesser omentum towards liver
gives off Right Gastric a. to lesser curvature, then divides into Right and Left Hepatic a.

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Right Hepatic a.

Gives off Cystic a. to gallbladder

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Gastroduodenal a.

(came off of split from Common Hepatic a.) des behind duodenum giving off Right Gastroepiploic a. to greater curvature of stomach

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Superior Mesenteric a.

from aorta just below Celiac trunk, post to panc, des in front of lower duodenum, enters mesentery, supplies SI
Gives off Jejunal and ileal branches to SI and ileocolic, right colic, and middle colic a. to LI

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Inferior Mesenteric a.

from aorta cm above its bifurcation, courses to LI, branches into Left Colic, Sigmoid, and Superior Rectal a.

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Marginal Artery of Dummond

formed by extensive anstm of asc and des branches of LI (colon) arteries, at prox. to inner margin of colon

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Portal Vein

nutrient-rich blood from digestive organs, formed by splenic v. and superior mesenteric v., inf mesenteric v. drains into splenic v., portal v. drains directly into liver.

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Lymphatics of abd

Nodes named after specific organ or blood vessel near which they lie.
Drain from organs to vessels towards celiac nodes, drain into cisterna chyli then into thoracic duct

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Liver

largest gland, exocrine, produces bile (to ducts by duodenum), had 2 surfaces

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2 surfaces of liver:

Diaphragmatic (superior) - r/t right dome of diaphragm
Visceral (inferior) - adjacent to abd viscera

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4 lobes of liver:

Right (largest), left, quadrate (upper middle) and caudate (lower middle)

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Porta hepatis

jxn of 4 lobes (very center), where structures enter/exit liver

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Name structures that enter/exit liver:

Right and left hepatic arteries, right and left hepatic ducts, and portal vein (NOT the hepatic veins)

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Gall Bladder

on visceral (inf) surface of liver, btw right lobe and quadrate lobe
bile stored and concentrated

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Pancreas

both endocrine and exocrine
exo - produces digestive enzymes, from duct to duodenum
endo - produces hormone insulin
head (concavity of duodenum)
body (from head, left across vertebrae)
tail (left end, approx. spleen)

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Duct system

right liver drained by right hepatic duct
left liver drained by left hepatic duct
these join forming common hepatic duct
gall bladder drained by cystic duct
Cystic joins common hepatic forming bile duct
Pancreas drained by main pancreatic duct
Accessory pancreatic duct drains into minor duodenal papilla (sup to major)
Bile and pancreatic duct join forming hepatopancreatic ampulla of Vater, opens thru sphincter of Oddi, then opens into duodenum at major duodenal papilla