Heart chp 25 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Heart chp 25 Deck (32):
1

Cardiovascular System

Circulatory system = heart and blood vessels

2

Heart

muscle, fxn = pump blood thru vessels of CV system, cardiac striated muscles, chambers (2 atria, 2 ventricles)
Atria lie post to ventricles (horizontal blood flow)
In thorax, btw lungs, resting on diaphragm

3

Structures that protect the heart

Ant - sternum
Laterally - ribs, ICM, lungs
Post - thoracic vertebrae
Pericardium - tough connective (fibroserous) tissue sac

4

Pericardium

outer layer blends w central tendon of diaphragm inf.
sup/post - fibrous layer blends w major vessels (VC, aorta, pulm trunk)
Myocardium - cardiac muscle
Endocardium - inner epithelial lining of chambers

5

Three surfaces

Sternocostal - adjacent to sternum and costal cartilages
Diaphragmatic - adjacent to diaphragm
Pulmonary - adjacent to medial surface of left lung

6

Apex

rounded projection, points inf and left, 6 CC

7

Base

where great vessels attach

8

Auricles (earlike appendage)

lateral surface of both atria, allow for increased capacity

9

Crista Terminalis

vertical muscular ridge, post wall of RA

10

Musculi Pectinati

from crista terminalis, ridge-like extensions
Found only in RA, and right and left auricles

11

RA venous openings

Superior and Inferior Vena Caval opening, (valve of IVC = nonfunctional), opening of coronary sinus (ant/sup to IVC)

12

Interatrial septum

btw right/left atrium,
fossa ovalis, limbus fossa ovalis

13

Foramen Ovale

foramen present in the fetal stages of development btw RA/LA, closes at birth, then called fossa ovalis

14

Tricuspid Valve (Right Atrioventricular)

Guards right atrioventricular opening, from RA to RV, closes during contraction of ventricles, preventing backflow

15

Atrioventricular valves composed of:

Cusps - flaps of connective tissue
Chordae tendineae - connective tissue cords, attach to lower surface of cusps
Papillary muscle - internal folds of ventricular muscle, chordae tendineae attach (a type of trabecular carneae)

16

Trabecula Carneae

irregular ridge like projections of muscle
papillary muscle and moderator band (septomarginal trabecular)

17

Moderator Band (Septomarginal Trabecula)

attaches to interventricular septum and ant papillary muscle
contains the right branch of atrioventricular bundle

18

Semilunar Valve

3 flaps or cusps
nodule - thickening of fibrous tissue at free edge of cusp, fills small gap when closed
Lunula - narrow thin crescent area extending from each side of nodule
Sinuses - spaces btw cusps and wall of vessels

19

Pulmonary Circulation

RV → pulmonary semilunar valve → pulmonary trunk → Rt and left pulmonary arteries → Rt and left lungs → oxygenated blood returns via FOUR pulmonary veins (2 from rt lung, 2 from left) → LA

20

LA

Musculi pectinati in left auricle only
4 opening of pulmonary veins and left atrioventricular valve

21

Bicuspid Valve (Mitral valve)

Has 2 cusps, chordae tendineae, and papillary muscles

22

LV

has trabecula carneae
very thick ventricle wall
performs more work and is larger

23

Aortic Semilunar Valve

3 cusps, nodules, and lunulae
aortic sinuses - origins of right and left coronary arteries

24

SA node

pacemaker, jxn of SVC and RA
impulse initiated in SA node, spreads thru atrial muscle to both atria, causing them both to contract, reaches atrioventricular node

25

AV node

in upper part of interventricular septum
receives impulse from SA node, holds it while atria contract, then sends impulse to atrioventricular bundle

26

Atrioventricular bundle (Bundle of His)

extends down interventricular septum, divides into right and left branch
Right branch goes thru septomarginal trabecula to wall of RV
Left branch goes directly to LV
Causing both ventricles to contract

27

Right Coronary Artery (RCA)

arises from right aortic sinus, emerges btw pulm trunk and right auricle
inf along heart, giving off marginal branch, then to back of heart
gives off post interventricular artery (apex)
ending by anastomoses w branch of left coronary artery

28

Left Coronary Artery (LCA)

arises from left aortic sinus
btw left auricle and pulm trunk
divides into anterior interventricular artery AKA left anterior descending (LAD), towards apex,
ending by anastomosing w post interventricular artery
circumflex branch - around heart to RCA

29

Cardiac Veins

All drain into coronary sinus:
Great cardiac vein - courses w ant interventricular artery and circumflex branch, cont on back of heart as coronary sinus
Middle cardiac vein - courses w post interventricular artery
Small cardiac vein - courses w marginal artery

30

Coronary sinus

short, wide vessel, receiving all 3 cardiac veins
empties into RA

31

Anterior cardiac veins

2-3 small vessels draining RV, ending in RA

32

Venae cordis minimae

numerous small veins draining myocardium, empty separately into all four chambers