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Respiratory system

gas transport and exchange
2 phases: conductive and gas exchange


Conductive phase

mvmt of gases from outer environment thru resp tubes to lungs


Gas exchange phase

exchange of O2 and CO2 btw blood and air sacs of lungs


Name the organs of the respiratory system, from outer environment to lungs

Nasal cavity (oral cavity), pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs



cartilaginous/membranous tube, from larynx above to bifurcation at primary bronchi below
15 cm long
16-20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
open posteriorly, bridge of connective and smooth muscle
esophagus is adjacent and posterior to bridge
Tracheal bifurcation is end of trachea


Right Primary Bronchus

wider, shorter, straighter, forms less acute angle
2.5 cm long
Enters right lung at right hilus and splits into 3 secondary branches, one for each lobe
Secondary divide into several tertiary bronchi, supplying bronchopulmonary segment - largest segment w lobe of lung, separated by connective tissue septa, preventing diffusion of air


Left Primary Bronchus

smaller, longer (5 cm), more acute angle


Differences btw Bronchi and Bronchioles

Bronchioles = smaller, more of them, no cartilage in their walls
Bronchi have cartilage in walls to keep from during inspiration bc they are outside the substance of the lung.


Respiratory bronchioles

from terminal bronchioles, short tubes of connective tissue and smooth muscle
alveoli bud off
branch in cone like radiation into 2-11 alveolar ducts


Alveolar ducts

long, thin-walled tubes of connective tissue and smooth muscle
give rise to alveoli and alveolar sacs



No cartilage or smooth muscle
thin layer of epithelium and connective tissue
numerous capillaries adjacent to them


Membrane where gas exchange occurs?

alveolar wall and capillary call (called the respiratory membrane)


Surfaces of lung

Costal - adjacent to thoracic wall
Diaphragmatic - (base) - concave in shape, adjacent to upper surface of diaphragm
Medial - adjacent to heart and other thoracic organs, contains hilus/hilum


Root of the lung

collective name of all structures entering or leaving lung -
pulm artery, 2 pulm veins, primary bronchus


Right lung

2 fissures: oblique and transverse (horizontal)
3 lobes: upper (superior), middle, and lower (inferior)


Left lung

1 fissure: oblique
2 lobes: upper and lower
Linqual and cardiac notch