Flashcards in Digestive, Urinary, Skeletal, Muscular, and Developmental Systems Deck (84)
Muscular tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus.
Rhythmic contractions that push food down the alimentary canal.
Journey of food through the organs
Food goes from the mouth, to the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine/colon, rectum.
Accessory Organs of the digestive system
1. Organs that play a role in digestion but aren't part of the alimentary canal
2. Includes the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
Released into body cavities such as the mouth or stomach or onto the body surface, such as digestive enzymes, saliva, or sweat.
Where is the pancreas located?
Tucked into a loop of small intestine on its left and extends to the right behind the stomach. Involved in the exocrine system.
1. Ingestion of food is accomplished
2. Teeth and tongue grind food into a lump (bolus) and salivary glands secrete saliva
3. Saliva contains digestive enzyme amylase which helps to digest starch
1. Acidic (1-2 pH) due to gastric glands secreting HCl. Helps to break up food and kill germs.
2. Gastric glands secrete enzyme pepsin to help digest protein. HCl helps pepsin to work and activates pepsinogen into pepsin to digest proteins.
3. The stomach secretes mucus to protect the lining from acid.
Stores bile produced by the liver.
1. Produces bile
2. Stores glycogen, produces glucose, metabolizes fat, and detoxes the blood.
3. Nutrient molecules are absorbed into the blood and brought to the liver for processing through portal veins.
1. Site of the most digestion and absorption of nutrients
2. Bile is released to break down fats into chyme, but does not digest them.
Enzyme that helps digest carbs
Enzyme that helps digest protein.
Enzyme that helps digest fat.
1. Secretes enzymes for each type of food for the small intestine
2. Enzymes from the pancreas don't work well in an acidic environment, so it secretes bicarbonate to neutralize acid in the intestines.
Where does digestion happen?
The stomach doesn't really help with digestion, it mostly occurs in the small intestine.
1. No digestion occurs, water is just reabsorbed
2. Chyme becomes solid and turns into feces
3. Large intestine contains a large amount of non pathogenic e. coli bacteria that prevents pathogenic bacteria from growing and supplies us with vitamin K.
6 kinds of nutrients
1. Carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water
2. Vitamins, minerals, and water are small and don't need digestion
Breaking of large molecules into molecules small enough to cross cell membranes and enter the bloodstream. Small molecules are known as end products.
What are lipids broken down into?
Fatty acids and glycerol.
1. Needed to make retinal, a chemical necessary for sight
2. Deficiency would cause night blindness
1. Needed for cellular respiration and DNA replication
2. Deficiency can cause skin disorders, mental confusion, or anemia.
1. Needed to make a fiber in connective tissue (collagen)
2. Deficiency causes wounds that don't heal or scurvy
1. Needed for calcium absorption
2. Deficiency causes weak bones and teeth or rickets
1. Needed to protect cell membranes from damage
2. Deficiency causes anemia
1. Needed for blood clotting
2. Deficiency causes easy bruising and excessive bleeding
1. Mineral needed to make hemoglobin
2. Deficiency causes anemia
1. Mineral needed for strong bones and teeth
2. Deficiency causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.
1. Mineral needed to make thyroxine
2. Deficiency causes decreased metabolic rate (hypothyroidism)