Flashcards in Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Deck (43)
What do insects have in place of blood?
Hemolymph, which bathes their organs rather than traveling in blood vessels.
Liquid portion of blood, mostly water, but containing dissolved glucose, hormones, and proteins, 50% of blood.
Red blood cells
1. Make up the majority of blood cells, 45% of blood
2. Shaped like disks and filled with hemoglobin, allowing them to transport oxygen.
Protein that is made partly of iron and used to transport oxygen. Need sufficient iron to get enough oxygen, or anemia results.
White blood cells
1. Fight disease, 5% of blood
2. Phagocytes and lymphocytes (B and T cells).
Eat pathogens and dead or sick cells.
Markers that bind to foreign things and mark them for destruction.
1. Helper T cells help B cells and other T cells to divide and proliferate.
2. Killer T cells kill any cell infected by a virus to stop them from reproducing.
How does HIV work?
Infects helper T cells, killing them. T cells help B and T cells to reproduce, so they aren't able to fight infections and many infections result.
1. Help blood to clot
2. Help to convert protein fibrinogen into threads (fibrin)
Where are all blood cells made?
The bone marrow
What determines blood type?
Blood type is genetic and determined by membrane proteins that sit on surface of white blood cells. Type Ia is type A protein, Ib is type B protein, ii is no protein.
What happens during blood transfusions if a person's body doesn't recognize the blood type?
The new red blood cells will clump up (agglutination) and be destroyed.
Which blood type is the universal recipient?
Type AB- it recognizes type A and type B proteins, and type O has no proteins.
Which blood type is the universal donor?
Type O- it can only receive type O, but anyone can receive it because it has no proteins.
1. Carry blood away from the heart
2. Thick, muscular walls that regulate diameter to regulate blood flow
3. High blood pressure due to push from heart
4. Branch into arterioles, then capillaries
1. Smallest blood volume
2. Site of gas exchange between blood and tissues
3. Very low blood flow and blood pressure
4. Merge into venules, which merge into veins
1. Carry blood to the heart
2. Low blood pressure, so skeletal muscles contract to squeeze blood
3. Don't regulate blood flow
4. Valves ensure that blood only moves in one direction.
Large artery moving blood away from the heart
Large vein moving blood toward the heart.
How does fluid move into tissues?
Arteries force fluid into tissues, which is mostly lost as not all of it returns to veins.
Network of vessels that begins at tissues and ends at veins. Recaptures extra fluid, filters it, and returns it to th blood.
Concentrated areas of white blood cells that filters fluid and can destroy anything harmful.
Similar to veins, with low pressure, valves, and skeletal muscle squeezes fluid (lymph).
Swelling due to trapped tissue fluid. Remaining in one position can limit muscle contraction and therefore restrict flow of fluid.
Chambers of the heart
1. Right atria, right ventricle, left atria, left ventricle
2. The right side pumps blood through pulmonary circuit, left through systemic circuit
3. Blood enters through atria
Blood pathway through the heart
1. Pulmonary circuit takes oxygen poor blood returning from the tissues and pumps it into the lungs.
2. Oxygen poor blood enters at the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cava, going from right atrium to the right ventricle.
3. Goes from right ventricle through pulmonary artery to the lungs.
4. At the lungs, gas exchange occurs.
5. Blood returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins and goes to the left ventricle
6. Leaves the heart through the aorta to bring blood to the rest of the body.
The valves between the atria and ventricles. These valves close first. Tricuspid and bicuspid/mitral.