Disaster Planning And Management Flashcards Preview

Occupational & Environmental Health > Disaster Planning And Management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disaster Planning And Management Deck (367):
0

Paradigm change required in disaster management

Change from the application of unlimited resources for the greatest good of each individual client, to the allocation of limited resources for the greatest good to the greatest number of casualties

1

Disasters

Events that occur when significant numbers of people are exposed to hazards to which they are vulnerable, with resulting injury and loss of life, often combined with damage to property and livelihoods

2

Main causes of disaster events

1. Nature
2. Technology
3. Human conflict
4. Combination

3

Examples of natural disaster potential hazards

1. Firestorms
2. Flood
3. Landshift
4. Tornado
5. Epidemic
6. Earthquake
7. Volcano
8. Hurricane
9. High winds
10. Blizzard
11. Heat wave

4

Examples of technological disaster potential hazards

1. Hazmat spills
2. Explosions
3. Utility failure
4. Building collapse
5. Transportation accident
6. Power outage
7. Nuclear accident
8. Dam failure
9. Fire
10. Water loss
11. Ruptured gas main

5

Examples of conflict disaster potential hazards

1. Riots
2. Strikes
3. Suicide bombings
4. Bomb threat
5. Employee violence
6. Mass shootings
7. Equipment sabotage
8. Hostage events
9. Transportation disruption
10. Weapons of mass destruction
11. Computer viruses/worms

6

Parameters to classify disasters

1. Number of fatalities
2. Number of ill/injured
3. Length of time for the impact
4. Rescue time
5. Radius of disaster area

7

Richter scale

Used to measure magnitude of earthquake

8

Modified Mercalli Intersity (MMI)

Subjective measurement used to describe the intensity, or nature and spatial extent of damage from an earthquake

9

Safffir-Simpson scale

Used to measure the strength of hurricanes

10

Fujiita scale

Used to measure the strength of tornados

11

Nat-tech disasters

Technological emergencies that result from natural disasters

Aka joint disasters

12

Examples of nat-tech disasters

1. Earthquake causing ruptured natural gas lines and fires
2. Tornado causing chemical tank breach and chemical spill

13

Characteristics of nat-tech disasters

1. Response for both events required simultaneously
2. Likely to be more than one technologic event
3. Major utilities may be disrupted
4. Mitigation efforts may not work as anticipated because of natural disaster

14

Factors that contribute to the increased probability and severity of consequences of disasters

1. Risk of disasters is greater
2. People have become more vulnerable to nature
3. Technologic disasters are more frequent and severe as result of increased complexity and dependency in these area

15

Reasons why risk of disaster is greater currently

1. Growing population
2. More technology
3. Increased political turbulence resulting in threat of terrorism

16

Reasons people are currently more vulnerable to nature

1. Mass migration
2. Urbanization
3. Building in high risk areas
4. War

17

Dependency on the following areas causes technologic disasters to be more severe and frequent

1. Telecommunications
2. Computer systems
3. High rise buildings
4. Widespread power supply grids
5. Global marketing

18

Disaster nursing

The systematic and flexible utilization of knowledge and skills specific to disaster related nursing, and the promotion of a wide range of activities to minimize the health hazards and life threatening damage caused by disasters in collaboration with other specialized fields

19

Emergencies defined

Any natural or man made situations that result in severe injury, harm or loss of humans, property and/or environment

20

Phases of Disaster Life Cycle Model

1. Prodromal phase
2. Impact phase
3. Rescue or emergency phase
4. Recovery or reconstruction phase
5. Quiescent or interdisaster phase

21

Prodromal phase

-The warning period when signs or public announcements occur.
-Evacuation or taking shelter may occur in this hose if there is sufficient time

22

Impact phase

-When the disaster causing event occurs
-May be short (tornado) or prolonged (hurricane)

23

Rescue or emergency phase

The period when immediate assistance is provided by bystanders and first responders

24

Recovery or reconstruction phase

-The period when all the necessary services and resources are applied to return to predisaster conditions
-May last for days, months, years

25

Quiescent or interdisaster phase

The period between disaster events

26

Stages of model for disaster chronology defined by use of a timeline

1. Preimpact phase
2. Impact phase
3. Postimpact phase

27

Preimpact phase

Includes planning/preparedness and disaster warning

28

Impact phase

-Divided into 0-24 hours and 24-72 hours
-Includes response and emergency management

29

Postimpact phase

-Begins after 72hours
-Efforts aimed at recovery, rehabilitation, reconstruction and evaluation

30

Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model

-Developed to assist educators to add disaster nursing to community health nursing courses
-Enables community nurses to plan for and manage disasters in conjunction with other personnel in each of the segments of ech phase of the model

31

Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model Phase I

-Predisaster
-Includes assessment, planning, primary prevention, education and plan practice activities

32

Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model Phase II

-Disaster
-Includes direct nursing care provision, case management, and secondary prevention education activities

33

Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model Phase III

-Post disaster
-Client needs reassessment
-Tertiary prevention level education
-Reevaluation and revision of disaster plan
-Communication of the experiences and findings

34

Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model Phase IV

-Positive client/population outcomes
-Defines outcome expectations
-Impacted by phases I-III

35

Examples of outcome expectations from Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model Phase IV

1. Decreased mortality rates
2. Decreased costs
3. Improved knowledge and health status
4. Improvement in disaster plan effectiveness and collaboration

36

Phase I Predisaster assessment activities

1. Identification of resources and risks in a work setting
2. Education: primary levels of prevention

37

Phase I Predisaster planning activities

1. Allocation of resources
2. Planning cooperative agreements
3. Defining roles
4. Development/activation of disaster assessment tools
5. Development of education programs
6. Development of volunteer opportunities

38

Phase I Predisaster implementation activities

1. Practice the disaster plan

39

Phase II Disaster roles of the nurse

1. Caregiver
2. Educator
3. Case manager

40

Phase II Disaster caregiver role activities

1. Triage
2. Provide holistic care

41

Phase II Disaster educator role activities

1. Secondary levels of prevention

42

Phase II Disaster case manager role activities

1. Liaison
2. Provide referrals
3. Coordination of services
4. Tracking system

43

Phase III Post Disaster assessment activities

1. Reevaluate healthcare needs of client
2. Education: tertiary levels of prevention
3. Reevaluate current disaster plan

44

Phase III Post Disaster planning activities

1. Revise existing plan
2. Plan for next potential disaster

45

Phase III Post Disaster implementation activities

1. Practice new/revised disaster plan
2. Disseminate findings

46

Phase IV Client/Population outcomes

1. Decreased mortality rates
2. Decreased healthcare costs
3. Decreased disaster related costs
4. Improved health status
5. Increased knowledge
6. Increased effectiveness of disaster plan
7. Increase collaborative relationships

47

Disaster planning and preparedness occur during...

The pre-disaster phase

48

Planning includes...

The determinations made by others on how to respond and manage resources if a disaster event occurs

49

Preparedness includes....

Measures taken and policies formed before an event occurs that allow for prevention, mitigation and readiness

50

Regardless of the cause or phase of a disaster, disaster planning and preparedness share common overall problems:

1. Conventional wisdom and routine emergency response don't work
2. Disaster problems cross interdisciplinary boundaries, triggering the mobilization of resources not ordinarily used in local emergencies
3. Actual human attitudes differ from what one might expect
4. There are multiple organizational barriers to preparing for and responding to a disaster
5. Groups and organizations can contribute in various ways to ineffective disaster response
6. Because companies, local agencies and organizations experience the fewest exposures to disaster loss compared to a state or nation, they are the least apt to perceive disaster planning and resources as important issues

51

Disasters often pose unique problems rarely faced in daily emergencies such as:

1. Blocked access
2. Inadequate resources
3. Unfamiliar tasks and procedures
4. Unfamiliar faces and roles
5. Overload of communications
6. Need for inter organizational coordination

52

Human attitudes experienced in a disaster that can cause problems

1. Underestimating risk and overestimating ability to survive an event
2. Overestimation of an entity's capability to deal with a disaster
3. Fatalism and denial
4. Lulled into a false sense of security when precautionary measures are in place
5. Responders having a need to be identified as heroes by their peers and others

53

One explanation for why people mistakenly underestimate risk and overestimate ability to survive an event

They have experienced the periphery of disaster events previously

54

Overestimation of an entity's capability to deal with a disaster is called...

Robinson Crusoe syndrome

(We're the only ones on the island)

55

Result of Robinson Crusoe syndrome

Neither collaboration nor a coherent overall strategy

56

Examples of comments that manifest fatalism and denial

1. There's nothing to worry about because nothing can be done about it anyhow
2. It can't happen here

57

Organizational barriers to preparing for and responding to a disaster

1. No institution, person or government agency is seen as responsible or accountable for disaster preparedness
2. Competing demands for resources needed to prepare for disasters at the bottom of priority lists
3. Over-response from untrained volunteers, miscommunication in resource allocations, lack of incident command and sightseers
4. Persons in authority at an agency or organization may assume command because they are the boss despite lack of expertise or training

58

Examples of how groups and organizations can contribute to ineffective disaster response

Vested interest groups can create the setup for disasters, such as the rights of property owners to build in flood prone areas

59

Actual and potential benefits to a workplace plan to prepare for disaster events

1. Helps companies meet moral responsibilities of protection of workers, citizens and the environment
2. Helps avoid risks of criminal charges for responsibility in industrial disasters
3. Reduces disaster impacts and potentially civil liability
4. Regulatory programs require planning
5. Cost of addressing effects of disaster after it has happened will be greater than costs of preparedness
6. Local, state and federal aid is usually insufficient to cover extent of damages
7. Planning and preparedness can lessen impacts of disaster and speed recovery phase
8. Disaster preparedness and planning enhance a company's image a credibility
9. Disaster preparedness and planning may reduce insurance premiums
10. All organizations are vulnerable disaster: not a question of if it will happen but when
11. Integration of occupational and environmental health into public health should lead to an all-hazards approach with better overall disaster preparedness

60

Moral responsibilities of companies

1. Protection of workers, citizens and the environment
2. Western values of goodness, truth and justice

61

Several regulatory programs require planning under such names as:

1. Emergency response plans
2. Emergency action plans
3. Contingency plans
4. Emergency and fire prevention plans
5. Risk management plans

62

OSHA regulations requiring emergency plans

1. 29 CFR 1910.35, 36, 37
2. 29 CFR 1910.38
3. 29 CFR 1910.119
4. 29 CFR 1910.120
5. 29 CFR 1910.146
6. 29 CFR 1910.151
7. 29 CFR 1910.156
8. 29 CFR 1910.158
9. 29 CFR 1910.159
10. 29 CFR 1910.160
11. 29 CFR 1910.165

63

29 CFR 1910.35, 36, 37

Means of egress

64

29 CFR 1910.38

Emergency plans and fire prevention plans

65

29 CFR 1910.119

Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals

66

29 CFR 1910.120

Hazardous waste operations and emergency response

67

29 CFR 1910.146

Permit-required confined spaces for general industry

68

29 CFR 1910.151

Medical services and first aid

69

29 CFR 1910.156

Fire brigades

70

29 CFR 1910.158

Portable fire extinguishers

71

29 CFR 1910.159

Automatic sprinkler system

72

29 CFR 1910.160

Fixed extinguishing systems

73

29 CFR 1910.165

Employee alarm systems

74

Increase in speed of response and recovery can enhance the company's ability to recover from

1. Financial losses
2. Regulatory fines
3. Loss of market share
4. Damages to equipment or products
5. Business interruption

75

---- of businesses that experience a fire or major theft go out of business within two years

47%

76

---- of companies that lose records in a disaster never resume business

44%

77

----- of business that experience a significant data loss are out of business within five years

93%

78

The majority of businesses spend less than ---- of their total budget on business recovery planning

3%

79

Why is there increasing importance that nurses should be able to function effectively in disaster situations?

Disaster preparedness has reached a new level if urgency

80

Why are occupational and environmental health nurses able to assess and respond holistically in disaster events?

1. Have regular interaction with workers, the workplace and the community
2. Likely to be aware of strengths and needs of clients

81

Why are occupational health nurses well positioned to serve on the frontlines of terrorist affront to workers?

They have a long history of protecting workers from the adverse effects of a multitude of workplace exposures

82

Basic types of disaster response plans:

1. Ones with specifically defined functions for particular agents
2. Ones which are broader in scope to cover all potential hazards

83

Priority in all disaster response plans

Life safety

84

Major types of disaster response plans

1. Emergency Action Plan
2. Business Continuity Plan
3. Risk Management Plan
4. Emergency Response Plan (ERP)
5. Contingency Plan
6. Federal Response Plan
7. Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan
8. Mutual Aid Plan
9. Recovery Plans
10. Emergency Management Plan
11. All-Hazard Disaster Management Plan (DMP)

85

Emergency Action Plan

- Required by OSHA
- Ensures that worker evacuation plans and drills have been developed
- Particularly focuses on response to facility fires

86

Business Continuity Plan

Requires that all operations performed by a particular unit or component be listed, prioritized, and identified as to their importance to continued business operations

87

Business Continuity Plan focuses on:

1. Policies
2. Practices
3. Activities

That reduce business losses and enhance actions to resume operations

88

Why is there increasing importance that nurses should be able to function effectively in disaster situations?

Disaster preparedness has reached a new level if urgency

89

Why are occupational and environmental health nurses able to assess and respond holistically in disaster events?

1. Have regular interaction with workers, the workplace and the community
2. Likely to be aware of strengths and needs of clients

90

Why are occupational health nurses well positioned to serve on the frontlines of terrorist affront to workers?

They have a long history of protecting workers from the adverse effects of a multitude of workplace exposures

91

Basic types of disaster response plans:

1. Ones with specifically defined functions for particular agents
2. Ones which are broader in scope to cover all potential hazards

92

Priority in all disaster response plans

Life safety

93

Major types of disaster response plans

1. Emergency Action Plan
2. Business Continuity Plan
3. Risk Management Plan
4. Emergency Response Plan (ERP)
5. Contingency Plan
6. Federal Response Plan
7. Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan
8. Mutual Aid Plan
9. Recovery Plans
10. Emergency Management Plan
11. All-Hazard Disaster Management Plan (DMP)

94

Emergency Action Plan

- Required by OSHA
- Ensures that worker evacuation plans and drills have been developed
- Particularly focuses on response to facility fires

95

Business Continuity Plan

Requires that all operations performed by a particular unit or component be listed, prioritized, and identified as to their importance to continued business operations

96

Business Continuity Plan focuses on:

1. Policies
2. Practices
3. Activities

That reduce business losses and enhance actions to resume operations

97

Critical operations in a Business Continuity Plan

Those operations a business cannot do without or that have a role that is vital to the operation and/ or may pose a life safety risk

98

What should be done for each critical activity?

1. Mitigation strategies should be implemented
2. Recovery process developed

99

Essential operations in a Business Continuity Plan

Are not critical, but are difficult to operate without, although the facility could run for a while without them

100

Nonessential operations in a Business Continuity Plan

Interruption would merely be an inconvenience

101

Types of business operations in a Business Continuity Plan

1. Critical operations
2. Essential operations
2. Nonessential operations

102

Risk Management Plan

Evaluates potential off site consequences of chemical release

103

Risk Management Plan requires....

Identification of "worst case" scenarios and how they would be managed

104

EPA mandated Risk Management Plan

40 CFR Part 68 Risk Management programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention

105

Emergency Response Plan

- ERP
- governs the immediate response to a disaster to provide life safety, rescue, damage control, evacuation and/or sheltering-in-place

106

OSHA requires and ERP for:

1. Hazardous waste sites
2. Hazardous materials spill response

107

OSHA standard that required ERP for certain facilities

29 CFR 1910.1209

108

Contingency Plan

A generalized emergency plan to handle unforeseen events not identified in a hazard and risk assessment

109

Federal Response Plan

Coordinates federal resources in any disaster or emergency situation in which there is a need for federal assistance

110

Legislation that identifies disasters or emergency situations that require federal assistance

Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.)

111

Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan

- SPCC
- describes measures to prevent, contain and clean up oil spills
- intent is to protect waterways from oil contamination

112

A facility is required to have an SPCC plan if it meets the following criteria:

1. It is non transportation related
2. It has an above ground capacity greater than 1,320 gallons or buried capacity greater than 42,000 gallons
3. There is reasonable expectation that a spill could occur to navigable US waters

113

SPCC plans are required by federal regulation....

40 CFR 112

114

Federal regulation 40 CFR 112 is implemented by...

The EPA

115

SPCC plans include:

1. Procedures to be followed to prevent oil spills from occurring
2. Procedures for responding to and controlling oil spills at the facility

116

Mutual Aid Plan

Calls for participating firms to share resources to help each other during an emergency

117

Mural Aid Plan is helpful for:

1. Small facilities with limited resources
2. Larger facilities with significant hazards

118

Mutual aid agreements are also instituted among...

Community first responder agencies

119

Recovery Plans

Govern the repair and rebuilding, including prioritization of facilities and communities after a disaster

120

Emergency Management Plan is required by:

Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations

121

Emergency Management Plan is required for the following facilities:

1. Hospital
2. Ambulatory care
3. Behavioral Health
4. Home care
5. Long-term care facilities

122

Emergency Management Plan is required by the following standards:

Environment of Care (EC)

1. EC.1.4
2. EC.2.4
3. EC.2.9.1

123

EC.1.4

Requires development of plan using four phases of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery

124

EC.2.4

Standard to implement plan

125

EC.2.9.1

Standard to execute the plan by conducting drills

126

Emergency Management Plan must include the following emergencies

1. Within the organization or facility
2. Handling of patient care demands from emergencies occurring in the community

127

Hospital Emergency Incident Command System

-HEICS
- component if Emergency Management Plan
- incident command structure
- links to the community structure

128

All-Hazard Disaster Management Plan

-DMP
- most broad in scope
- ultimate goal is to predict and prepare for the unpredictable

129

DMP covers:

1. Natural disasters
2. Man made disasters

130

Man made disasters in a DMP are subdivided into:

1. Technologic disasters
2. Conflict induced disasters

131

DMP incorporates all of the other more specific plans including:

1. Emergency response plans
2. Business recovery/ continuity plans

132

Plan that serves as an excellent template for a disaster plan

All-Hazard Disaster Management Plan

133

Objectives for the all-hazard disaster plan

1. To eliminate or reduce the chance of disaster occurring
2. To reduce the resulting impact, injury, illness and/or damage
3. To use emergency response to prevent additional harm
4. To strengthen the ability to withstand disruption of infrastructure
5. To enable rapid recovery and restoration of production, services and pre-disaster conditions

134

Several key principles that determine the success or failure of the plan

1. Support of upper management is essential
2. Disaster planning requires the expertise of many people
3. Businesses must avoid the attitude that they can handle events by themselves
4. The planning process takes time and proper project management
5. The occupational and environmental health nurse should be prepared to be the prime mover or motivating force for the plan

135

Disaster planners may include:

1. Company management
2. Occupational health and safety personnel
3. Human resources
4. Risk managers
5. Accounting
6. Security
7. Union representatives

136

Why is it important to have the expertise of many people in disaster planning?

1. More people will be participating and investing in the plan
2. The plan experiences increased visibility and importance
3. The plan receives a more broad perspective on key issues
4. Important networking and collaborative relationships can develop

137

Developing a disaster management plan

1. Establish a planning team
2. Clear line of authority between group members and the group chairperson defined
3. Logistical preparations completed
4. Existing plans located and reviewed

138

Establishing a planning team

1. Some persons are active members and some are advisors
2. Input from personnel in all key functional areas obtained
3. Team appointments made in writing from upper management

139

When establishing a disaster management plan input should be obtained from personnel in all of the following key functional areas:

1. Upper management
2. Line management
3. Environmental health and safety
4. Occupational and environmental health
5. Human resources
6. Maintenance
7. Security
8. Public relations
9. Marketing
10. Legal
11. Financial
12. Purchasing
13. Telecommunications
14. Other workers in accordance with the size and sophistication if the facility

140

How should line of authority between group members be defined?

1. Senior management should give and announce the authority to the planning team to develop the plan
2. Authority may be provided through a mission statement

141

Logistical preparations that need to be made to develop a disaster management plan

1. Preliminary deadlines and timelines should be established
2. Progressive budgetary needs should be outlined

142

Progressive budgetary needs that should be outlined

1. Consulting fees
2. Travel fees
3. Research costs
4. Clerical costs
5. Other expenses

143

Existing plans that should be located and reviewed with developing a disaster management plan

1. Site evacuation plan
2. Fire protection plan
3. Security procedures
4. Bomb threat procedure
5. Hazardous materials response plan
6. Risk management plan
7. Others

144

Analyzing potential disasters to include in the disaster management plan

1. Conduct a hazards identification
2. Perform a vulnerability assessment
3. Set priorities by performing risk analysis

145

Hazards identification

Determines what adverse events are possible

146

Hazard

The potential for harm or damage to people, property or the environment

147

What hazards should be identified in a hazard analysis?

All hazards with a potential for disaster that could occur within a facility, or that could occur within the community and would affect the facility

148

Sources of information regarding hazards

1. Knowledgable company representatives
2. Knowledgable community agencies and representatives
3. Health and safety professionals
4. Professional publications and courses
5. Area historical data
6. Government agencies data
7. News media

149

In a hazards identification business functions should be identified according to --------- and -----------

Critical functions

Amount of time they can be inoperative

150

Vulnerability

The degree to which a population or an individual is unable to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impacts of disasters

151

Vulnerability is a function of...

1. Susceptibility
2. Resistance
3. Resilience

152

Susceptibility

Is a product of social, political, economic and cultural forces and activities that determine the proneness of individuals and groups to being adversely affected by disaster

153

Resistance

Is the ability of buildings and the infrastructure to resist the strain or force exerted by natural or human-induced agents

154

Resilience

The amount of coping capacity

155

Each hazard identified should be reviewed for potential....

1. Human loss
2. Property loss
3. Economic impact
4. Environmental impact

156

Relevant questions for vulnerability assessment

1. What is the vulnerable location?
2. What population exists within this location?
3. What essential services, facilities and environmental systems exist within this zone?

157

How should each business function, component or department conduct its own individual risk assessment?

1. They should examine all the processes they perform and critical areas or activities that are necessary to avoid significant loss of revenue, customers or business operation
2. When combined these individual assessments compose the risk assessment for the entire business

158

Capabilities that exist that would prevent or respond to onsite hazards

1. Existing response plans
2. Available emergency response equipment
3. Plant security
4. Number of trained on-site responders
5. Experience
6. Site expertise
7. Equipment
8. Supplies
9. Facilities
10. Contract services
11. Community response capabilities
12. Detection and alarm devices
13. Data backup resources
14. Site security
15. Archive practices

159

------- for each hazard should be used in the vulnerability analysis

Worst-case assumptions

160

Classifications of amount of time a business interruption can be tolerated without causing critical disruption

1. Immediate
2. Delayed
3. Deferred

161

Immediate

0-24 hours

May require alternate or "hot" site

162

Delayed

24 hours to 7 days

Prearranged site that would be needed for a short period

163

Deferred

Beyond 7 days

No immediate need for an offsite location

164

Degrees of vulnerability to each potential threat or hazard

1. Highly vulnerable
2. Vulnerable
3. Not vulnerable

165

Highly vulnerable

Those functions that have a great risk of experiencing a threat or hazard

166

Vulnerable

May experience a threat or hazard

167

Not vulnerable

Threat or hazard not likely to occur

168

Risk analysis

Evaluates and compares different hazards by assigning a measure to the hazards and ranking them

169

Risk vs hazard

Risk: a possibility of suffering harm from a hazard

Hazard: a substance or action that can cause harm

170

Steps in risk analysis

1. Determine how probable it is that the hazard could occur
2. Determine how severe this hazard could be in consequences compared to others identified and analyzed
3. Determine how vulnerable the affected location and persons are to the hazard and its severity

171

Final product of analyses of hazards, vulnerability and risk

List of potential disasters identified by priority for the purposes of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery

172

Mitigation

The effort to eliminate hazards or lessen the impact of an event should it occur

173

Examples of mitigation efforts

1. Storing critical data offsite
2. Substituting less-hazardous raw materials in a process
3. Reinforcing storage tanks in an earthquake prone area

174

Response

Consists of efforts that are made during and immediately after a disaster to assist victims and reduce the likelihood of secondary harm

175

Response period

Begins with the notification or warning and lasts until the critical incident is resolved

176

Detailed response plan must cover several key elements

1. Alarm system
2. Preferred means of reporting fired or other emergencies
3. Evacuation of personnel
4. Sheltering-in-place as an alternative to evacuation
5. Procedures for persons with disabilities
6. Rescue and medical duties for employees who are to perform them
7. Person in charge based on the nature of the emergency
8. List of company personnel who should be notified in the various cases of emergencies

177

Examples of types of evacuation

1. Total evacuation
2. Partial evacuation
3. Evacuation of certain areas of plant

178

How do you determine type of evacuation?

On the nature and extent of emergency

179

Elements of plan for evacuation of personnel

1. Emergency escape procedures
2. Emergency escape route assignments
3. Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical plant operations before they evacuate
4. Procedure to account for all employees after evacuation is complete

180

Sheltering-in-place is accomplished by...

Selecting a location with no or few windows and taking refuge there

181

Reasons for sheltering-in-place vs evacuation

Evacuation can be unsafe if chemical, biological or radiologic continents are released into the environment

182

Plans for persons with disabilities

1. Hearing impaired must be notified directly or with visual warnings
2. Visually impaired may need audible or vibratory notification
3. Nonambulatory personnel may need special rescue services by trained responders

183

Components of list of company personnel who should be notified in case of emergency

1. Means to summon and communicate with them throughout emergency should be determined
2. Names or regular job titles of persons or departments who can be contacted for further explanation of duties
3. List of community agencies to be called

184

Final activity in planning is....

Implementing the plan

185

Disaster response plan should be reviewed with all staff....

1. When it is completed
2. On initial assignment of a new employee
3. When employee responsibilities change
4. When plan changes
5. Annually
6. More often if needed

186

Training needs for implementing disaster management plan may include...

1. Fire equipment and response
2. Use of personal protective equipment
3. First aid an CPR
4. Decontamination procedures
5. Bomb threat procedures
6. Other plan elements

187

Disaster response plan should be tested through....

1. Practice evacuations
2. Sheltering-in-place
3. Documented tests of alarm systems
4. Communications systems tests
5. Fire response equipment inspections
6. Other plan elements

188

Types of drills

1. Orientation
2. Tabletop
3. Functional
4. Full scale

189

Orientation drill

Briefing or low stress training to familiarize participants with team roles, responsibilities and expectations.

This provides a good overview of the emergency response plan

190

Tabletop drill

Limited simulation or scenario of an emergency situation to evaluate plans, procedures, coordination and assignment of resources

191

Functional drill

Limited involvement or simulation by field operations to test communication, preparedness, and availability/deployment of operational resources

192

Full scale drill

Conducted in an environment created to simulate a real-life situation

193

How often should disaster management plan should be updated?

At least once a year

194

The response phase is the point at which.....

Emergency actions are started to save lives, property and the environment and to prevent secondary harm

195

Five basic stages of response to an emergency or disaster

1. Recognition
2. Notification/warning
3. Immediate employee safety
4. Community/public safety
5. Property protection
6. Environment protection

196

Length of each response stage

Depends on the emergency situation

197

Length of notification/warning stage for a hurricane

May be several hours

198

Length of notification stage for an explosion

May be minutes or only seconds

199

Priority ranking in emergency response

1. Persons
2. Property
3. Environment

200

Each stage in disaster response depends on....

Effort in earlier stages

201

Property protection deals with....

Property at the emergency scene as well as protecting property on which the event may impinge

202

Environmental protection in disaster response involves....

Reduction and elimination of emergency incidents affecting air, waterways and groundwater, soil and wildlife

203

Two modes of strategic decision in disaster response

1. Defensive response
2. Offensive response

204

Defensive response mode

Undertaken to prevent exposure or damage with no intentional entry or contact with the incident scene

205

Example of defensive response mode

Going to a distant valve to shut off a leaking pipeline

206

Offensive response mode

Requires proper personal protective equipment and personnel who have been trained to this level of response

207

Example of offensive mode response

Entering a chemical release area to plug and patch a leaking tank

208

Persons responding to disaster must know the following about what type of response to make:

1. Their own capabilities
2. How to not exceed their capabilities
3. Understand that rescue may not be possible without involving too much risk to the rescue personnel

209

The following basic measures should be taken during disaster response

1. Approach any scene cautiously from upwind, uphill and upstream. Resist the urge to rush in
2. Secure the scene by keeping people away from the site, outside a safety perimeter
3. Identify the hazards, using all available information and reevaluating as information becomes available
4. Assess the situation by considering whether there is a fire, chemical spill, weather related hazard and/or terrain/location hazard
5. Determine who or what is at risk: people, property or the environment
6. Determine what actions should be taken, such as evacuation vs shelter in place
7. Determine what resources are required and of they are readily available
8. Decide what can be done immediately
9. Obtain help of responsible agencies and qualified personnel
10. Respond using the scene's safest entry route
11. Set up decontamination
12. Establish first aid and medical treatment arrangements

210

When a disaster occurs the first response will be........

1. Local EMS
2. Police
3. Fire
4. Other identified responders

211

Upon notification of a disaster hospitals, medical facilities and public health agencies will....

Activate their disaster plans

212

In the event of a hazardous materials disaster the following will be activated:

Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC)

213

Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) is an agency mandated by.....

US EPA

214

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) may respond with the activation of....

The Federal Response Plan

215

National Disaster Medical System (NDMS)provides for the establishment of.....

Disaster Field Offices (DFOs)

216

Components of Disaster Field Offices (DFOs)

1. Emergency Response Teams (ERTs)
2. Infrastructure Support Branch
3. Deputy Field Coordinating Officer for Mitigation

217

Emergency Response Teams (ERTs) Operations Section coordinates......

Federal, state and voluntary efforts

218

The ERT Operations Section had a Human Services Branch that is responsible for:

1. Needs assessment
2. Establishment of disaster recovery centers
3. Initiation, coordination, and delivery of programs authorized by the Stafford Act
4. Managing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and state grant programs

219

Infrastructure Support Branch

Deals with restoration of public utilities and other infrastructure services

220

Deputy Field Coordinating Officer for Mitigation

Coordinates with the Infrastructure Support Branch and otherwise promotes mitigation and preparedness activities

221

In March 2004, the Department of Homeland Security developed the...

National Incident Management System (NIMS)

222

Goal of NIMS

To enable responders at all jurisdictional levels and across all disciplines to work together more effectively and efficiently

223

Beginning in 2006 --------- will be tied to compliance with NIMS

Federal funding for state, local and tribal preparedness

224

One of the best practices incorporated with the National Incident Management System is the....

Incident Command System

225

Incident Command System

A standard, on scene, all hazards incident management system

226

ICS is already in use by.....

1. Firefighters
2. Hazardous materials teams
3. Rescuers
4. Emergency medical teams

227

The ICS is based on.....

Basic business practices

228

The ICS has leaders perform basic tasks of.....

1. Planning
2. Directing
3. Organizing
4. Coordinating
5. Communicating
6. Delegating
7. Evaluating

229

The functional areas of the ICS are under the overall direction of an....

Incident Commander

230

The ICS can be implemented at the following levels:

1. Company
2. Community
3. State
4. National

231

Utilization of ICS can be mandatory in the following circumstances

1. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act requires that organizations that deal with hazardous material incidents respond under an ICS
2. Most fire and EMS departments implement ICS at fire scenes and in mass casualty incidents
3. Certain insurance companies and local regulations require implementation of an ICS

232

The ICS is designed to......

Organize the response so that the maximum amount of resources is provided to the greatest areas of need

233

Features that enable the ICS to maximize amount of resources to greatest area of need are:

1. Integrated communication
2. Span of control
3. Unified command
4. Action plan
5. Comprehensive resource management
6. Modular format

234

Integrated communications

- Communications procedures and protocols
- Frequency allocations and uses
- Procedures to receive, record and acknowledge incoming and outgoing communication are integrated and coordinated
- Plain language is used in all communications exchanges

235

Span of control

A desirable range of from three to ten subordinates is assigned to any one supervisor for effective management

236

Unified command

When multiple agencies are involved, responsibility for the overall management of an incident is shared with all agencies contributing to the command process

237

Action plan

The plan addresses:
1. Strategic goals
2. Tactical objectives
3. All support activities and actions that are required for al responders and response agencies

238

Comprehensive resource management

Resources are identified, recorded and given status monitoring throughout all phases of the incident in order to maximize resource utilization, consolidate large numbers of individual resources, and reduce communications loading of radio channels

239

Modular format

A top down organizational structure is used for any incident.

240

"Top down"

Means that the command function is established by the first arriving officer

241

Five ICS areas of function necessary to respond effectively

1. Command
2. Operations
3. Planning
4. Logistics
5. Finance

242

Command function

Involves directing, ordering and controlling resources by virtue of explicit legal, agency or delegated authority

243

Operations function

Is responsible for management of all tactical activities including:

1. Medical response
2. Rescue
3. Fire suppression
4. Hazmat response

244

Planning function

The function for collection, evaluation, dissemination and use of information about the progress of the incident and the status of resources

245

This function plays a key role in the creation of a disaster/emergency specific action plan

Planning function

246

Logistics function

Is responsible for locating, organizing and providing facilities, services and materials for an incident

247

Finance function

Carefully records and justifies cost and financial operations and reimbursement of costs

248

Critical officer positions

1. Incident commander
2. Safety officer
3. Liaison officer
4. Operations section officer or chief
5. Planning officer
6. Logistics office
7. Staging area manager

249

Incident commander

The one person in overall charge of the operations

Is mandatory in all responses

250

Safety officer

Reports directly to command and can shut down operations if anything poses a threat to personnel safety

Position is mandatory for all responses

251

Liaison officer

Agency representatives work within the command function and decision making process with the incident commander through this position

252

Operations section officer or chief

Has primary responsibility for tactical operations taking place at any specific phase of the emergency's event

253

Planning officer

Responsible for the planning function

Reports to the incident commander

254

Logistics office

Oversees the logistics function and reports to the incident commander

255

Staging area manager

Controls the staging area

Dispatches resources when called for at the scene

256

Staging area

-is a resource-marshalling area
-units such as ambulances report while waiting for specific assignments and direction
-may be one or more established

257

Which resources should go to the immediate site vs the staging area?

Only those resources that can be readily employed and utilized at the scene.
The rest should be held in the staging area

258

Command post

-serves as the command center
-must contain necessary communications equipment to allow direction of units out in the field

259

Functions of command post

1. Serves as an operations center for command staff and community agency command staff away from the disaster scene to enable smooth operations at both command post and scene
2. Must serve as incoming center for incoming information from the scene and other site units and for outgoing information to the media and community
3. Can be a planned site at a fixed facility or a specially designed vehicle
4. One one per incident

260

Command post must have the following features:

1. Designated command post location
2. Alternative if primary site is unusable
3. Back up heat and or power/battery operated equipment
4. Necessary communications equipment
5. Adequate protection from potential hazards
6. Access to restroom facilities, water, garbage/sanitation supplies, food and utensils
7. Separate area for media briefings
8. Essential documents
9. Documentation capability
10. Controlled and secure access
11. Necessary information resources

261

Examples of necessary communications equipment for a command post

1. Telephones
2. Radios
3. Fax machine
4. Weather radio
5. Megaphone/PA system

262

Examples of essential documents needed at command post

1. Disaster plan
2. Emergency action plan
3. Other plans
4. Resources lists
5. Plot plans
6. Other essential documents

263

Examples of documentation capabilities needed for command post

1. Tape recorders
2. Forms
3. Copy machine
4. Clip boards
5. Computer diskettes
6. Office supplies

264

Examples of necessary information resources for a command post

1. MSDSs
2. DOT emergency response guidebook
3. NIOSH pocket guide
4. Chemical comparability charts

265

Key persons who gather at an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to coordinate their response to an event:

1. Department heads
2. Government officers and officials
3. Volunteer agency members

266

Most jurisdictions maintain an EOC as part of....

Their community's emergency preparedness program

267

EOC ---------- compete with the command post but operates --------

Does not

In conjunction with it

268

Important measures that need to be taken in the response phase to reduce legal liability

1. Reasoned actions, decisions and responses, including telephone, radio and traffic activities must be documented
2. Photographs and videos should be taken
3. All documents that have been collected should be retained
4. Work should be conducted within defined responsibilities and levels of authority
5. Records and reports should be filed promptly
6. Legal counsel may need to be consulted
7. If response deficiencies are noted, they should be corrected
8. Any new hazards identified during response should be noted, and arrangements should be made to mitigate them when the crisis is over

269

The news media represents the public's........

First Amendment right to know at a news incident

270

The press is committed to:

1. Finding out what has occurred
2. Providing objective and responsible reporting
3. Using the best information that can be obtained

271

Media needs of television reporter

Looking for a good shot

272

Media needs of radio reporter

Wants good sound bites

273

Media needs of newspaper reporter

Wants details and background information

274

Media needs of specialty media services

Want the story behind the story

275

Locations where media will be present

1. Incident site
2. Command and control centers
3. Fire and police stations
4. Offices of public officials

276

Media preparations needed for incident response

1. Site preselected for media operations and interviews
2. A pre packaged press kit

277

Example of items that could be contained in a press kit

1. Telephone numbers for press lines
2. Background information on emergency service units
3. Background information on emergency response teams
4. Glossary of terms used
5. Diagrams of specialized equipment
6. Training photographs
7. Explanation of procedures
8. Safety information
9. Interview procedures and policies
10. Information on past incidents and disasters

278

Resources

All personnel and major items of equipment (including crews) that are available to potentially available for assignment to incidents

279

Resources are described by several predetermined definitions:

1. Kind or function
2. Type or performance capability
3. Single resources are individual pieces of equipment and their personnel complement

280

Resources are defined in various combinations

1. A combination of single resources assembled for a particular operational need
2. A group of resources of the same kind and type

281

Task force

A combination of single resources assembled for a particular operational need, with common communications and a leader

282

Strike team

A group of resources of the same kind and type

283

A strike team is managed by....

A strike team leader

284

All resources will be on one of three category conditions

1. Assigned
2. Available
3. Out of service

285

Assigned resources

Resources that are performing active responses

286

Available resources

Resources that are available for immediate assignment and are usually in the staging area

287

Out of service resources

Resources that are not ready for response because of such factors as mechanical problems, rest periods or weather conditions

288

A major problem that can occur when resources are being assembled is that there are too many.....

Untrained personnel

289

Convergent volunteerism

The arrival of unexpected or uninvited personnel wishing to render aid at the scene of a large scale emergency incident

290

Communications are needed to....

1. Report initial and secondary emergencies
2. Warn personnel of hazards as they appear
3. Keep families and the community informed about what is happening at the facility
4. Coordinate evacuation and response actions
5. Keep in contact with emergency response agencies and command centers

291

Facility communications should be prioritized to.....

Identify those that should be restored first

292

Communications options include:

1. Messengers
2. Telephones
3. Cell phones
4. Portable microwave
5. Amateur radios
6. Point to point private lines
7. Satellite
8. High frequency radio
9. Two way radio
10. Fax machine
11. Dial up modems
12. Local area networks
13. Bull horn
14. Whistles/bells
15. Pagers
16. Hand signals

293

Considerations for evacuation of a facility or area:

1. Account

294

Types of untrained personnel that may show up at natural, technological and conflict origin disasters

1. Medical
2. Fire
3. Law enforcement
4. Civilian personnel

295

Why are communications necessary and a major need?

1. To report initial and secondary emergencies
2. To warn personnel of hazards as they appear
3. To keep families and community informed about what is happening at the facility
4. To coordinate evacuation and response actions
5. To keep in contact with emergency response agencies and command centers

296

Communications can be disrupted....

1. Short term
2. Total communications failure

297

Why should facility communications be prioritized?

To identify those that should be restored first

298

Communications options

1. Messengers
2. Telephones
3. Cell phones
4. Portable microwave
5. Amateur radio
6. Point to point private lines
7. Satellite
8. High frequency radio
9. Two way radio
10. Fax machine
11. Dial up modems
12. Local area networks
13. Bullhorn
14. Whistles/bells
15. Pagers
16. Hand signals

299

What types of communication systems should be considered to keep informed of disaster impacts and responses?

Battery operated systems

Ex: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radios and AM radios

300

Key points for consideration when evacuating a facility or area

1. Accounting for all personnel
2. Employee transportation needs for community wide evacuations
3. Special assistance for persons with disabilities and those who do not speak English
4. Posted evacuation procedures and routes
5. Critical operations continued or shut down
6. Primary and secondary evacuation routes that have emergency lighting in case of power outage
7. Evacuation routes and exits must be wide enough
8. Names and last known locations of unaccounted for personnel given to Emergency Operations Center
9. Accounting for nonemployees
10. Additional evacuation in case the incident worsens
11. Shelter provided within facility or away from facility in certain events
12. Need for emergency supplies
13. Coordination with local authorities
14. Search and rescue conducted only by trained and equipped professionals
15. Untrained employees not allowed to reenter damaged or contaminated facility until until professional responders have determined all clear

301

How do you account for all personnel after evacuation?

Using post evacuation assembly areas

302

Persons assigned to maintain critical operations during an evacuation must be trained to....

Recognize when to abandon the operation and evacuate themselves

303

Evacuation routes and emergency exits must be....

1. Wide enough to accommodate the number of evacuating personnel
2. Clear and unobstructed
3. Unlikely to expose evacuating personnel to any additional hazards

304

Examples of nonemployees that need to be accounted for post evacuation

1. Suppliers/vendors
2. Customers

305

Examples of additional evacuation that should be considered in case an incident worsens

1. Employees sent home by normal means
2. Provide transportation to off site location

306

Examples of incidents when shelter would be provided either on site or off site

1. Chemical releases
2. Tornado warnings
3. Parking lot shootings

307

Types of emergency supplies that should be thought about when long term sheltering is anticipated

1. Food
2. Water
3. Sanitation
4. Medical supplies

308

Key points for consideration when protecting facilities, equipment and vital records

1. Vital records can be protected by labeling and storing in insulated containers
2. Computer systems backed up and data stored off site
3. Additional security may be needed when an event affects a facility
4. Arrangements should be made for evacuation of critical original records
5. Arrangements for backup power

309

Example of critical original records that may need to be evacuated

Patents

310

Environmental protection considerations that may be needed:

1. Waterways may need to be protected
2. Soil may need to be collected and disposed of as hazardous waste
3. Air may need to be protected
4. National Response Center (NRC) must be notified
5. US Army Operations Center or Defense Logistics Agency may need to be reported to
6. FBI field office and local authorities may need to be notified

311

Waterways may need to be protected from...

Oil or chemical runoff

312

Example of how air may need to be protected

By preventing evaporation of volatile materials

313

When should the NRC be notified?

Immediately when dangerous goods or hazardous substances at or over reportable quantities are spilled

314

Phone number for NRC

800-424-8802

315

Department of Defense military shipping incidents must be reported to:

US Army Operations Center
Defense Logistics Agency

316

What types of incidents are reported to US Army Operations Center?

Incidents involving explosives and ammunition

317

What types of incidents are reported to the Defense Logistics Agency?

Incidents involving non-explosive and non-ammunition military shipments

318

When should the FBI along with local authorities be notified?

Credible terrorist threat or of a suspected incident involving weapons of mass destruction

319

------- is the last phase of the disaster cycle

Recovery

320

Recovery continues until....

Return to normal operation is accomplished

321

Recovery activities should always include....

Evaluation of ways to avoid future similar emergencies

322

Accurate ------ is important to the recovery process

Damage assessment

323

Recovery should not conflict with....

Crime scene preservation and examination

324

Fast recovery is desirable, but --------- must be established

The cause of the incident

325

Accurate projections of -------- should be estimated and communicated

Recovery times

326

Recovery times can last from.....

Days to weeks or even months

327

Often responders do not recognize the need to....

Take care of themselves and monitor their own emotional and physical health

328

Rescue and recovery operations take place in -------------. ----------- over long shifts can place emergency workers at greatly increased risk for injury

Extremely dangerous work environments

Mental fatigue

329

Co-workers may be intently focused on a particular task and may not notice.....

A hazard nearby, or behind, placing themselves and others at risk

330

The paths to recovery appear to be determined by:

1. The physical characteristics of the disaster agent
2. The types and quantities of community resources that survive the disaster
3. The external aid the community can obtain
4. The reconstruction strategies that these communities adopt and implement

331

The disaster recovery phase can be divided into the following periods of activity:

1. Restoration period
2. Reconstruction/ replacement period

332

Restoration period

1. Security of the damaged area is established
2. Repairs to utilities are made
3. Debris is removed
4. Evacuees return
5. Continuing care is provided to victims
6. Commercial, industrial and residential structures are repaired or prefabricated housing or other temporary structures go up and temporary bracing is installed for buildings and bridges

333

Reconstruction/ replacement period

Involves rebuilding capital stocks and getting the economy back to pre-disaster levels.

Period can take some years

334

During the recovery period public information should.....

Flow constantly to disaster victims and be monitored for effectiveness

335

A critical responsibility during recovery is to ensure that.....

Mandatory reports are made to various authorities

336

A fatality or multiple hospitalizations must be reported to OSHA within.....

8 hours

337

A recordable occupational injury or illness must be entered on the OSHA 300 log within.....

6 days

338

Release of a listed carcinogen must be reported to OSHA within.....

24 hours

339

Release of hazardous air pollutants must be reported to the EPA Regional Administrator at....

A time varying with the specific pollutant

340

In some cases, "less than reportable quantities" of a release must be reported to.....

Local, state and regional authorities

341

Types of reporting requirements

1. Federal
2. State
3. Regional
4. Local

342

Potential natural hazards that may results from hurricanes

1. Torrential rains
2. High winds
3. Ocean storm surges
4. Floods

343

------- are the most common natural disaster

Floods

344

Floods can also be caused by....

1. Spring rain
2. Heavy thunderstorms
3. Winter snow thaws
4. Failed dikes or dams
5. Ruptured water mains
6. Leaking water tanks

345

Planning for hurricanes includes the following:

1. Inspecting areas in the facility that could be subject to flooding or wind damage
2. Identify vulnerable records and equipment that can be moved to a higher location
3. Consider storing backup and data media in watertight containers
4. Plan to protect outside equipment and structures
5. Consider obtaining a NOAA Weather Radio with a warning alarm tone and backup battery for early natural disaster warning

346

Mitigation measures for hurricanes

1. Have the means and personnel available and trained to move equipment and other critical items to a safe location if a flood watch or warning is announced
2. In flood prone areas consider flood proofing the facility
3. New construction can be elevated on walls, columns or compacted fill
4. Careful assessment for floodplain locations is an important mitigation factor when new facility locations are be contemplated
5. Have backup systems ready for hurricane events
6. To protect from high winds, install window storm shutters
7. Identify alternate storm shelters, particularly underground shelter, for protection against high winds

347

Examples of ways to flood proof a facility

1. Blocking off windows and doors
2. Reinforcing and sealing walls
3. Installing check valves at utility or sewer line entrances
4. Constructing flood walls and levees outside

348

Examples of backup systems

1. Emergency lighting
2. Alternative power sources
3. Portable pumps

349

An alternate option to storm windows for protection from high winds

Cover windows with 5/8 inch marine plywood

350

Hurricanes can also spawn.....

1. Tornados
2. Thunderstorms
3. Heavy rains

351

Tornados can occur with.....

Little or no warning

352

Tornados can be idenfied by NOAA through....

Storm watches and reports

353

Steps to take with a tornado watch

1. Be ready to take shelter
2. Listen for radio announcements and community sirens

354

Steps to take with a tornado warning

1. Take shelter immediately
2. Understand that this means a tornado has been sighted or is showing on radar

355

Types of structures that are not tornado safe

Auditoriums, cafeterias and gymnasiums with flat wide-span roofs

356

Tornado planning and management considerations

1. Listen to NOAA storm watches and reports
2. Know when to be ready to take shelter and when to take shelter immediately
3. Identify designated tornado shelters
4. Have worker notification procedures established
5. Consider the need for spotters to watch for approaching storms and funnel clouds
6. Train an practice in tornado notify cation and shelter responses frequently

357

Earthquakes can occur....

Anywhere in the Uniter States, suddenly and without warning

358

Earthquakes can trigger other disaster events such as...

1. Fires
2. Explosions
3. Landslides
4. Tidal waves (tsunamis)
5. Floods

359

During an earthquake often the greatest danger to people occurs when....

Equipment and nonstructural elements such as ceilings, lighting fixtures, and windows shake loose

360

Planning for earthquakes includes.....

Assessment of the facility for vulnerability

361

Mitigation for earthquakes requires developing and prioritizing facility-strengthening measures such as:

1. Adding steel bracing and sheer walls to frames
2. Reinforcing columns and building foundations
3. Replacing unreinforced brick and facade

362

Interior mitigation for earthquakes includes:

1. Moving large and heavy objects to floor level
2. Securing shelves, furniture, computers and cabinets
3. Securing fixed machinery to the floor
4. Anchoring large utility and process piping
5. Installing safety glass

363

Hazardous material storage and earthquakes

Hazardous materials must be properly store dead in a manner than incompatible chemicals are not kept adjacent to each other

364

Training related to earthquakes should be provided to workers on:

1. Building evacuation procedures
2. Designated safe areas should evacuation be necessary
3. Preparation for aftershocks

365

Local government agencies and insurance carriers can provide the following resources for earthquakes:

1. Comprehensive area assessments
2. Planning and mitigation guidance
3. Response and restoration support

366

Guidelines provided for natural disasters can be applied to other events as well. The key to responding to each of these disasters is thorough:

1. Hazard identification
2. Vulnerability analysis
3. Planning
4. Mitigation measures
5. Well conceived plan with proper training and drills

Decks in Occupational & Environmental Health Class (49):