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Flashcards in Disaster Planning And Management Deck (367):

Paradigm change required in disaster management

Change from the application of unlimited resources for the greatest good of each individual client, to the allocation of limited resources for the greatest good to the greatest number of casualties



Events that occur when significant numbers of people are exposed to hazards to which they are vulnerable, with resulting injury and loss of life, often combined with damage to property and livelihoods


Main causes of disaster events

1. Nature
2. Technology
3. Human conflict
4. Combination


Examples of natural disaster potential hazards

1. Firestorms
2. Flood
3. Landshift
4. Tornado
5. Epidemic
6. Earthquake
7. Volcano
8. Hurricane
9. High winds
10. Blizzard
11. Heat wave


Examples of technological disaster potential hazards

1. Hazmat spills
2. Explosions
3. Utility failure
4. Building collapse
5. Transportation accident
6. Power outage
7. Nuclear accident
8. Dam failure
9. Fire
10. Water loss
11. Ruptured gas main


Examples of conflict disaster potential hazards

1. Riots
2. Strikes
3. Suicide bombings
4. Bomb threat
5. Employee violence
6. Mass shootings
7. Equipment sabotage
8. Hostage events
9. Transportation disruption
10. Weapons of mass destruction
11. Computer viruses/worms


Parameters to classify disasters

1. Number of fatalities
2. Number of ill/injured
3. Length of time for the impact
4. Rescue time
5. Radius of disaster area


Richter scale

Used to measure magnitude of earthquake


Modified Mercalli Intersity (MMI)

Subjective measurement used to describe the intensity, or nature and spatial extent of damage from an earthquake


Safffir-Simpson scale

Used to measure the strength of hurricanes


Fujiita scale

Used to measure the strength of tornados


Nat-tech disasters

Technological emergencies that result from natural disasters

Aka joint disasters


Examples of nat-tech disasters

1. Earthquake causing ruptured natural gas lines and fires
2. Tornado causing chemical tank breach and chemical spill


Characteristics of nat-tech disasters

1. Response for both events required simultaneously
2. Likely to be more than one technologic event
3. Major utilities may be disrupted
4. Mitigation efforts may not work as anticipated because of natural disaster


Factors that contribute to the increased probability and severity of consequences of disasters

1. Risk of disasters is greater
2. People have become more vulnerable to nature
3. Technologic disasters are more frequent and severe as result of increased complexity and dependency in these area


Reasons why risk of disaster is greater currently

1. Growing population
2. More technology
3. Increased political turbulence resulting in threat of terrorism


Reasons people are currently more vulnerable to nature

1. Mass migration
2. Urbanization
3. Building in high risk areas
4. War


Dependency on the following areas causes technologic disasters to be more severe and frequent

1. Telecommunications
2. Computer systems
3. High rise buildings
4. Widespread power supply grids
5. Global marketing


Disaster nursing

The systematic and flexible utilization of knowledge and skills specific to disaster related nursing, and the promotion of a wide range of activities to minimize the health hazards and life threatening damage caused by disasters in collaboration with other specialized fields


Emergencies defined

Any natural or man made situations that result in severe injury, harm or loss of humans, property and/or environment


Phases of Disaster Life Cycle Model

1. Prodromal phase
2. Impact phase
3. Rescue or emergency phase
4. Recovery or reconstruction phase
5. Quiescent or interdisaster phase


Prodromal phase

-The warning period when signs or public announcements occur.
-Evacuation or taking shelter may occur in this hose if there is sufficient time


Impact phase

-When the disaster causing event occurs
-May be short (tornado) or prolonged (hurricane)


Rescue or emergency phase

The period when immediate assistance is provided by bystanders and first responders


Recovery or reconstruction phase

-The period when all the necessary services and resources are applied to return to predisaster conditions
-May last for days, months, years


Quiescent or interdisaster phase

The period between disaster events


Stages of model for disaster chronology defined by use of a timeline

1. Preimpact phase
2. Impact phase
3. Postimpact phase


Preimpact phase

Includes planning/preparedness and disaster warning


Impact phase

-Divided into 0-24 hours and 24-72 hours
-Includes response and emergency management


Postimpact phase

-Begins after 72hours
-Efforts aimed at recovery, rehabilitation, reconstruction and evaluation


Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model

-Developed to assist educators to add disaster nursing to community health nursing courses
-Enables community nurses to plan for and manage disasters in conjunction with other personnel in each of the segments of ech phase of the model


Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model Phase I

-Includes assessment, planning, primary prevention, education and plan practice activities


Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model Phase II

-Includes direct nursing care provision, case management, and secondary prevention education activities


Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model Phase III

-Post disaster
-Client needs reassessment
-Tertiary prevention level education
-Reevaluation and revision of disaster plan
-Communication of the experiences and findings


Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model Phase IV

-Positive client/population outcomes
-Defines outcome expectations
-Impacted by phases I-III


Examples of outcome expectations from Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model Phase IV

1. Decreased mortality rates
2. Decreased costs
3. Improved knowledge and health status
4. Improvement in disaster plan effectiveness and collaboration


Phase I Predisaster assessment activities

1. Identification of resources and risks in a work setting
2. Education: primary levels of prevention


Phase I Predisaster planning activities

1. Allocation of resources
2. Planning cooperative agreements
3. Defining roles
4. Development/activation of disaster assessment tools
5. Development of education programs
6. Development of volunteer opportunities


Phase I Predisaster implementation activities

1. Practice the disaster plan


Phase II Disaster roles of the nurse

1. Caregiver
2. Educator
3. Case manager


Phase II Disaster caregiver role activities

1. Triage
2. Provide holistic care


Phase II Disaster educator role activities

1. Secondary levels of prevention


Phase II Disaster case manager role activities

1. Liaison
2. Provide referrals
3. Coordination of services
4. Tracking system


Phase III Post Disaster assessment activities

1. Reevaluate healthcare needs of client
2. Education: tertiary levels of prevention
3. Reevaluate current disaster plan


Phase III Post Disaster planning activities

1. Revise existing plan
2. Plan for next potential disaster


Phase III Post Disaster implementation activities

1. Practice new/revised disaster plan
2. Disseminate findings


Phase IV Client/Population outcomes

1. Decreased mortality rates
2. Decreased healthcare costs
3. Decreased disaster related costs
4. Improved health status
5. Increased knowledge
6. Increased effectiveness of disaster plan
7. Increase collaborative relationships


Disaster planning and preparedness occur during...

The pre-disaster phase


Planning includes...

The determinations made by others on how to respond and manage resources if a disaster event occurs


Preparedness includes....

Measures taken and policies formed before an event occurs that allow for prevention, mitigation and readiness


Regardless of the cause or phase of a disaster, disaster planning and preparedness share common overall problems:

1. Conventional wisdom and routine emergency response don't work
2. Disaster problems cross interdisciplinary boundaries, triggering the mobilization of resources not ordinarily used in local emergencies
3. Actual human attitudes differ from what one might expect
4. There are multiple organizational barriers to preparing for and responding to a disaster
5. Groups and organizations can contribute in various ways to ineffective disaster response
6. Because companies, local agencies and organizations experience the fewest exposures to disaster loss compared to a state or nation, they are the least apt to perceive disaster planning and resources as important issues


Disasters often pose unique problems rarely faced in daily emergencies such as:

1. Blocked access
2. Inadequate resources
3. Unfamiliar tasks and procedures
4. Unfamiliar faces and roles
5. Overload of communications
6. Need for inter organizational coordination


Human attitudes experienced in a disaster that can cause problems

1. Underestimating risk and overestimating ability to survive an event
2. Overestimation of an entity's capability to deal with a disaster
3. Fatalism and denial
4. Lulled into a false sense of security when precautionary measures are in place
5. Responders having a need to be identified as heroes by their peers and others


One explanation for why people mistakenly underestimate risk and overestimate ability to survive an event

They have experienced the periphery of disaster events previously


Overestimation of an entity's capability to deal with a disaster is called...

Robinson Crusoe syndrome

(We're the only ones on the island)


Result of Robinson Crusoe syndrome

Neither collaboration nor a coherent overall strategy


Examples of comments that manifest fatalism and denial

1. There's nothing to worry about because nothing can be done about it anyhow
2. It can't happen here


Organizational barriers to preparing for and responding to a disaster

1. No institution, person or government agency is seen as responsible or accountable for disaster preparedness
2. Competing demands for resources needed to prepare for disasters at the bottom of priority lists
3. Over-response from untrained volunteers, miscommunication in resource allocations, lack of incident command and sightseers
4. Persons in authority at an agency or organization may assume command because they are the boss despite lack of expertise or training


Examples of how groups and organizations can contribute to ineffective disaster response

Vested interest groups can create the setup for disasters, such as the rights of property owners to build in flood prone areas


Actual and potential benefits to a workplace plan to prepare for disaster events

1. Helps companies meet moral responsibilities of protection of workers, citizens and the environment
2. Helps avoid risks of criminal charges for responsibility in industrial disasters
3. Reduces disaster impacts and potentially civil liability
4. Regulatory programs require planning
5. Cost of addressing effects of disaster after it has happened will be greater than costs of preparedness
6. Local, state and federal aid is usually insufficient to cover extent of damages
7. Planning and preparedness can lessen impacts of disaster and speed recovery phase
8. Disaster preparedness and planning enhance a company's image a credibility
9. Disaster preparedness and planning may reduce insurance premiums
10. All organizations are vulnerable disaster: not a question of if it will happen but when
11. Integration of occupational and environmental health into public health should lead to an all-hazards approach with better overall disaster preparedness


Moral responsibilities of companies

1. Protection of workers, citizens and the environment
2. Western values of goodness, truth and justice


Several regulatory programs require planning under such names as:

1. Emergency response plans
2. Emergency action plans
3. Contingency plans
4. Emergency and fire prevention plans
5. Risk management plans


OSHA regulations requiring emergency plans

1. 29 CFR 1910.35, 36, 37
2. 29 CFR 1910.38
3. 29 CFR 1910.119
4. 29 CFR 1910.120
5. 29 CFR 1910.146
6. 29 CFR 1910.151
7. 29 CFR 1910.156
8. 29 CFR 1910.158
9. 29 CFR 1910.159
10. 29 CFR 1910.160
11. 29 CFR 1910.165


29 CFR 1910.35, 36, 37

Means of egress


29 CFR 1910.38

Emergency plans and fire prevention plans


29 CFR 1910.119

Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals


29 CFR 1910.120

Hazardous waste operations and emergency response


29 CFR 1910.146

Permit-required confined spaces for general industry


29 CFR 1910.151

Medical services and first aid


29 CFR 1910.156

Fire brigades


29 CFR 1910.158

Portable fire extinguishers


29 CFR 1910.159

Automatic sprinkler system


29 CFR 1910.160

Fixed extinguishing systems


29 CFR 1910.165

Employee alarm systems


Increase in speed of response and recovery can enhance the company's ability to recover from

1. Financial losses
2. Regulatory fines
3. Loss of market share
4. Damages to equipment or products
5. Business interruption


---- of businesses that experience a fire or major theft go out of business within two years



---- of companies that lose records in a disaster never resume business



----- of business that experience a significant data loss are out of business within five years



The majority of businesses spend less than ---- of their total budget on business recovery planning



Why is there increasing importance that nurses should be able to function effectively in disaster situations?

Disaster preparedness has reached a new level if urgency


Why are occupational and environmental health nurses able to assess and respond holistically in disaster events?

1. Have regular interaction with workers, the workplace and the community
2. Likely to be aware of strengths and needs of clients


Why are occupational health nurses well positioned to serve on the frontlines of terrorist affront to workers?

They have a long history of protecting workers from the adverse effects of a multitude of workplace exposures


Basic types of disaster response plans:

1. Ones with specifically defined functions for particular agents
2. Ones which are broader in scope to cover all potential hazards


Priority in all disaster response plans

Life safety


Major types of disaster response plans

1. Emergency Action Plan
2. Business Continuity Plan
3. Risk Management Plan
4. Emergency Response Plan (ERP)
5. Contingency Plan
6. Federal Response Plan
7. Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan
8. Mutual Aid Plan
9. Recovery Plans
10. Emergency Management Plan
11. All-Hazard Disaster Management Plan (DMP)


Emergency Action Plan

- Required by OSHA
- Ensures that worker evacuation plans and drills have been developed
- Particularly focuses on response to facility fires


Business Continuity Plan

Requires that all operations performed by a particular unit or component be listed, prioritized, and identified as to their importance to continued business operations


Business Continuity Plan focuses on:

1. Policies
2. Practices
3. Activities

That reduce business losses and enhance actions to resume operations


Why is there increasing importance that nurses should be able to function effectively in disaster situations?

Disaster preparedness has reached a new level if urgency


Why are occupational and environmental health nurses able to assess and respond holistically in disaster events?

1. Have regular interaction with workers, the workplace and the community
2. Likely to be aware of strengths and needs of clients


Why are occupational health nurses well positioned to serve on the frontlines of terrorist affront to workers?

They have a long history of protecting workers from the adverse effects of a multitude of workplace exposures


Basic types of disaster response plans:

1. Ones with specifically defined functions for particular agents
2. Ones which are broader in scope to cover all potential hazards


Priority in all disaster response plans

Life safety


Major types of disaster response plans

1. Emergency Action Plan
2. Business Continuity Plan
3. Risk Management Plan
4. Emergency Response Plan (ERP)
5. Contingency Plan
6. Federal Response Plan
7. Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan
8. Mutual Aid Plan
9. Recovery Plans
10. Emergency Management Plan
11. All-Hazard Disaster Management Plan (DMP)


Emergency Action Plan

- Required by OSHA
- Ensures that worker evacuation plans and drills have been developed
- Particularly focuses on response to facility fires


Business Continuity Plan

Requires that all operations performed by a particular unit or component be listed, prioritized, and identified as to their importance to continued business operations


Business Continuity Plan focuses on:

1. Policies
2. Practices
3. Activities

That reduce business losses and enhance actions to resume operations


Critical operations in a Business Continuity Plan

Those operations a business cannot do without or that have a role that is vital to the operation and/ or may pose a life safety risk


What should be done for each critical activity?

1. Mitigation strategies should be implemented
2. Recovery process developed


Essential operations in a Business Continuity Plan

Are not critical, but are difficult to operate without, although the facility could run for a while without them


Nonessential operations in a Business Continuity Plan

Interruption would merely be an inconvenience


Types of business operations in a Business Continuity Plan

1. Critical operations
2. Essential operations
2. Nonessential operations


Risk Management Plan

Evaluates potential off site consequences of chemical release


Risk Management Plan requires....

Identification of "worst case" scenarios and how they would be managed


EPA mandated Risk Management Plan

40 CFR Part 68 Risk Management programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention


Emergency Response Plan

- governs the immediate response to a disaster to provide life safety, rescue, damage control, evacuation and/or sheltering-in-place


OSHA requires and ERP for:

1. Hazardous waste sites
2. Hazardous materials spill response


OSHA standard that required ERP for certain facilities

29 CFR 1910.1209


Contingency Plan

A generalized emergency plan to handle unforeseen events not identified in a hazard and risk assessment


Federal Response Plan

Coordinates federal resources in any disaster or emergency situation in which there is a need for federal assistance


Legislation that identifies disasters or emergency situations that require federal assistance

Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.)


Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan

- describes measures to prevent, contain and clean up oil spills
- intent is to protect waterways from oil contamination


A facility is required to have an SPCC plan if it meets the following criteria:

1. It is non transportation related
2. It has an above ground capacity greater than 1,320 gallons or buried capacity greater than 42,000 gallons
3. There is reasonable expectation that a spill could occur to navigable US waters


SPCC plans are required by federal regulation....

40 CFR 112


Federal regulation 40 CFR 112 is implemented by...



SPCC plans include:

1. Procedures to be followed to prevent oil spills from occurring
2. Procedures for responding to and controlling oil spills at the facility


Mutual Aid Plan

Calls for participating firms to share resources to help each other during an emergency


Mural Aid Plan is helpful for:

1. Small facilities with limited resources
2. Larger facilities with significant hazards


Mutual aid agreements are also instituted among...

Community first responder agencies


Recovery Plans

Govern the repair and rebuilding, including prioritization of facilities and communities after a disaster


Emergency Management Plan is required by:

Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations


Emergency Management Plan is required for the following facilities:

1. Hospital
2. Ambulatory care
3. Behavioral Health
4. Home care
5. Long-term care facilities


Emergency Management Plan is required by the following standards:

Environment of Care (EC)

1. EC.1.4
2. EC.2.4
3. EC.2.9.1



Requires development of plan using four phases of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery



Standard to implement plan



Standard to execute the plan by conducting drills


Emergency Management Plan must include the following emergencies

1. Within the organization or facility
2. Handling of patient care demands from emergencies occurring in the community


Hospital Emergency Incident Command System

- component if Emergency Management Plan
- incident command structure
- links to the community structure


All-Hazard Disaster Management Plan

- most broad in scope
- ultimate goal is to predict and prepare for the unpredictable


DMP covers:

1. Natural disasters
2. Man made disasters


Man made disasters in a DMP are subdivided into:

1. Technologic disasters
2. Conflict induced disasters


DMP incorporates all of the other more specific plans including:

1. Emergency response plans
2. Business recovery/ continuity plans


Plan that serves as an excellent template for a disaster plan

All-Hazard Disaster Management Plan


Objectives for the all-hazard disaster plan

1. To eliminate or reduce the chance of disaster occurring
2. To reduce the resulting impact, injury, illness and/or damage
3. To use emergency response to prevent additional harm
4. To strengthen the ability to withstand disruption of infrastructure
5. To enable rapid recovery and restoration of production, services and pre-disaster conditions


Several key principles that determine the success or failure of the plan

1. Support of upper management is essential
2. Disaster planning requires the expertise of many people
3. Businesses must avoid the attitude that they can handle events by themselves
4. The planning process takes time and proper project management
5. The occupational and environmental health nurse should be prepared to be the prime mover or motivating force for the plan


Disaster planners may include:

1. Company management
2. Occupational health and safety personnel
3. Human resources
4. Risk managers
5. Accounting
6. Security
7. Union representatives


Why is it important to have the expertise of many people in disaster planning?

1. More people will be participating and investing in the plan
2. The plan experiences increased visibility and importance
3. The plan receives a more broad perspective on key issues
4. Important networking and collaborative relationships can develop


Developing a disaster management plan

1. Establish a planning team
2. Clear line of authority between group members and the group chairperson defined
3. Logistical preparations completed
4. Existing plans located and reviewed


Establishing a planning team

1. Some persons are active members and some are advisors
2. Input from personnel in all key functional areas obtained
3. Team appointments made in writing from upper management


When establishing a disaster management plan input should be obtained from personnel in all of the following key functional areas:

1. Upper management
2. Line management
3. Environmental health and safety
4. Occupational and environmental health
5. Human resources
6. Maintenance
7. Security
8. Public relations
9. Marketing
10. Legal
11. Financial
12. Purchasing
13. Telecommunications
14. Other workers in accordance with the size and sophistication if the facility


How should line of authority between group members be defined?

1. Senior management should give and announce the authority to the planning team to develop the plan
2. Authority may be provided through a mission statement


Logistical preparations that need to be made to develop a disaster management plan

1. Preliminary deadlines and timelines should be established
2. Progressive budgetary needs should be outlined


Progressive budgetary needs that should be outlined

1. Consulting fees
2. Travel fees
3. Research costs
4. Clerical costs
5. Other expenses


Existing plans that should be located and reviewed with developing a disaster management plan

1. Site evacuation plan
2. Fire protection plan
3. Security procedures
4. Bomb threat procedure
5. Hazardous materials response plan
6. Risk management plan
7. Others


Analyzing potential disasters to include in the disaster management plan

1. Conduct a hazards identification
2. Perform a vulnerability assessment
3. Set priorities by performing risk analysis


Hazards identification

Determines what adverse events are possible



The potential for harm or damage to people, property or the environment


What hazards should be identified in a hazard analysis?

All hazards with a potential for disaster that could occur within a facility, or that could occur within the community and would affect the facility


Sources of information regarding hazards

1. Knowledgable company representatives
2. Knowledgable community agencies and representatives
3. Health and safety professionals
4. Professional publications and courses
5. Area historical data
6. Government agencies data
7. News media


In a hazards identification business functions should be identified according to --------- and -----------

Critical functions

Amount of time they can be inoperative



The degree to which a population or an individual is unable to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impacts of disasters


Vulnerability is a function of...

1. Susceptibility
2. Resistance
3. Resilience



Is a product of social, political, economic and cultural forces and activities that determine the proneness of individuals and groups to being adversely affected by disaster



Is the ability of buildings and the infrastructure to resist the strain or force exerted by natural or human-induced agents



The amount of coping capacity


Each hazard identified should be reviewed for potential....

1. Human loss
2. Property loss
3. Economic impact
4. Environmental impact


Relevant questions for vulnerability assessment

1. What is the vulnerable location?
2. What population exists within this location?
3. What essential services, facilities and environmental systems exist within this zone?


How should each business function, component or department conduct its own individual risk assessment?

1. They should examine all the processes they perform and critical areas or activities that are necessary to avoid significant loss of revenue, customers or business operation
2. When combined these individual assessments compose the risk assessment for the entire business


Capabilities that exist that would prevent or respond to onsite hazards

1. Existing response plans
2. Available emergency response equipment
3. Plant security
4. Number of trained on-site responders
5. Experience
6. Site expertise
7. Equipment
8. Supplies
9. Facilities
10. Contract services
11. Community response capabilities
12. Detection and alarm devices
13. Data backup resources
14. Site security
15. Archive practices


------- for each hazard should be used in the vulnerability analysis

Worst-case assumptions


Classifications of amount of time a business interruption can be tolerated without causing critical disruption

1. Immediate
2. Delayed
3. Deferred



0-24 hours

May require alternate or "hot" site



24 hours to 7 days

Prearranged site that would be needed for a short period



Beyond 7 days

No immediate need for an offsite location


Degrees of vulnerability to each potential threat or hazard

1. Highly vulnerable
2. Vulnerable
3. Not vulnerable


Highly vulnerable

Those functions that have a great risk of experiencing a threat or hazard



May experience a threat or hazard


Not vulnerable

Threat or hazard not likely to occur


Risk analysis

Evaluates and compares different hazards by assigning a measure to the hazards and ranking them


Risk vs hazard

Risk: a possibility of suffering harm from a hazard

Hazard: a substance or action that can cause harm


Steps in risk analysis

1. Determine how probable it is that the hazard could occur
2. Determine how severe this hazard could be in consequences compared to others identified and analyzed
3. Determine how vulnerable the affected location and persons are to the hazard and its severity


Final product of analyses of hazards, vulnerability and risk

List of potential disasters identified by priority for the purposes of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery



The effort to eliminate hazards or lessen the impact of an event should it occur


Examples of mitigation efforts

1. Storing critical data offsite
2. Substituting less-hazardous raw materials in a process
3. Reinforcing storage tanks in an earthquake prone area



Consists of efforts that are made during and immediately after a disaster to assist victims and reduce the likelihood of secondary harm


Response period

Begins with the notification or warning and lasts until the critical incident is resolved


Detailed response plan must cover several key elements

1. Alarm system
2. Preferred means of reporting fired or other emergencies
3. Evacuation of personnel
4. Sheltering-in-place as an alternative to evacuation
5. Procedures for persons with disabilities
6. Rescue and medical duties for employees who are to perform them
7. Person in charge based on the nature of the emergency
8. List of company personnel who should be notified in the various cases of emergencies


Examples of types of evacuation

1. Total evacuation
2. Partial evacuation
3. Evacuation of certain areas of plant


How do you determine type of evacuation?

On the nature and extent of emergency


Elements of plan for evacuation of personnel

1. Emergency escape procedures
2. Emergency escape route assignments
3. Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical plant operations before they evacuate
4. Procedure to account for all employees after evacuation is complete


Sheltering-in-place is accomplished by...

Selecting a location with no or few windows and taking refuge there


Reasons for sheltering-in-place vs evacuation

Evacuation can be unsafe if chemical, biological or radiologic continents are released into the environment


Plans for persons with disabilities

1. Hearing impaired must be notified directly or with visual warnings
2. Visually impaired may need audible or vibratory notification
3. Nonambulatory personnel may need special rescue services by trained responders


Components of list of company personnel who should be notified in case of emergency

1. Means to summon and communicate with them throughout emergency should be determined
2. Names or regular job titles of persons or departments who can be contacted for further explanation of duties
3. List of community agencies to be called


Final activity in planning is....

Implementing the plan


Disaster response plan should be reviewed with all staff....

1. When it is completed
2. On initial assignment of a new employee
3. When employee responsibilities change
4. When plan changes
5. Annually
6. More often if needed


Training needs for implementing disaster management plan may include...

1. Fire equipment and response
2. Use of personal protective equipment
3. First aid an CPR
4. Decontamination procedures
5. Bomb threat procedures
6. Other plan elements


Disaster response plan should be tested through....

1. Practice evacuations
2. Sheltering-in-place
3. Documented tests of alarm systems
4. Communications systems tests
5. Fire response equipment inspections
6. Other plan elements


Types of drills

1. Orientation
2. Tabletop
3. Functional
4. Full scale


Orientation drill

Briefing or low stress training to familiarize participants with team roles, responsibilities and expectations.

This provides a good overview of the emergency response plan


Tabletop drill

Limited simulation or scenario of an emergency situation to evaluate plans, procedures, coordination and assignment of resources


Functional drill

Limited involvement or simulation by field operations to test communication, preparedness, and availability/deployment of operational resources


Full scale drill

Conducted in an environment created to simulate a real-life situation


How often should disaster management plan should be updated?

At least once a year


The response phase is the point at which.....

Emergency actions are started to save lives, property and the environment and to prevent secondary harm


Five basic stages of response to an emergency or disaster

1. Recognition
2. Notification/warning
3. Immediate employee safety
4. Community/public safety
5. Property protection
6. Environment protection


Length of each response stage

Depends on the emergency situation


Length of notification/warning stage for a hurricane

May be several hours


Length of notification stage for an explosion

May be minutes or only seconds


Priority ranking in emergency response

1. Persons
2. Property
3. Environment


Each stage in disaster response depends on....

Effort in earlier stages


Property protection deals with....

Property at the emergency scene as well as protecting property on which the event may impinge


Environmental protection in disaster response involves....

Reduction and elimination of emergency incidents affecting air, waterways and groundwater, soil and wildlife


Two modes of strategic decision in disaster response

1. Defensive response
2. Offensive response


Defensive response mode

Undertaken to prevent exposure or damage with no intentional entry or contact with the incident scene


Example of defensive response mode

Going to a distant valve to shut off a leaking pipeline


Offensive response mode

Requires proper personal protective equipment and personnel who have been trained to this level of response


Example of offensive mode response

Entering a chemical release area to plug and patch a leaking tank


Persons responding to disaster must know the following about what type of response to make:

1. Their own capabilities
2. How to not exceed their capabilities
3. Understand that rescue may not be possible without involving too much risk to the rescue personnel


The following basic measures should be taken during disaster response

1. Approach any scene cautiously from upwind, uphill and upstream. Resist the urge to rush in
2. Secure the scene by keeping people away from the site, outside a safety perimeter
3. Identify the hazards, using all available information and reevaluating as information becomes available
4. Assess the situation by considering whether there is a fire, chemical spill, weather related hazard and/or terrain/location hazard
5. Determine who or what is at risk: people, property or the environment
6. Determine what actions should be taken, such as evacuation vs shelter in place
7. Determine what resources are required and of they are readily available
8. Decide what can be done immediately
9. Obtain help of responsible agencies and qualified personnel
10. Respond using the scene's safest entry route
11. Set up decontamination
12. Establish first aid and medical treatment arrangements


When a disaster occurs the first response will be........

1. Local EMS
2. Police
3. Fire
4. Other identified responders


Upon notification of a disaster hospitals, medical facilities and public health agencies will....

Activate their disaster plans


In the event of a hazardous materials disaster the following will be activated:

Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC)


Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) is an agency mandated by.....



Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) may respond with the activation of....

The Federal Response Plan


National Disaster Medical System (NDMS)provides for the establishment of.....

Disaster Field Offices (DFOs)


Components of Disaster Field Offices (DFOs)

1. Emergency Response Teams (ERTs)
2. Infrastructure Support Branch
3. Deputy Field Coordinating Officer for Mitigation


Emergency Response Teams (ERTs) Operations Section coordinates......

Federal, state and voluntary efforts


The ERT Operations Section had a Human Services Branch that is responsible for:

1. Needs assessment
2. Establishment of disaster recovery centers
3. Initiation, coordination, and delivery of programs authorized by the Stafford Act
4. Managing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and state grant programs


Infrastructure Support Branch

Deals with restoration of public utilities and other infrastructure services


Deputy Field Coordinating Officer for Mitigation

Coordinates with the Infrastructure Support Branch and otherwise promotes mitigation and preparedness activities


In March 2004, the Department of Homeland Security developed the...

National Incident Management System (NIMS)


Goal of NIMS

To enable responders at all jurisdictional levels and across all disciplines to work together more effectively and efficiently


Beginning in 2006 --------- will be tied to compliance with NIMS

Federal funding for state, local and tribal preparedness


One of the best practices incorporated with the National Incident Management System is the....

Incident Command System


Incident Command System

A standard, on scene, all hazards incident management system


ICS is already in use by.....

1. Firefighters
2. Hazardous materials teams
3. Rescuers
4. Emergency medical teams


The ICS is based on.....

Basic business practices


The ICS has leaders perform basic tasks of.....

1. Planning
2. Directing
3. Organizing
4. Coordinating
5. Communicating
6. Delegating
7. Evaluating


The functional areas of the ICS are under the overall direction of an....

Incident Commander


The ICS can be implemented at the following levels:

1. Company
2. Community
3. State
4. National


Utilization of ICS can be mandatory in the following circumstances

1. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act requires that organizations that deal with hazardous material incidents respond under an ICS
2. Most fire and EMS departments implement ICS at fire scenes and in mass casualty incidents
3. Certain insurance companies and local regulations require implementation of an ICS


The ICS is designed to......

Organize the response so that the maximum amount of resources is provided to the greatest areas of need


Features that enable the ICS to maximize amount of resources to greatest area of need are:

1. Integrated communication
2. Span of control
3. Unified command
4. Action plan
5. Comprehensive resource management
6. Modular format


Integrated communications

- Communications procedures and protocols
- Frequency allocations and uses
- Procedures to receive, record and acknowledge incoming and outgoing communication are integrated and coordinated
- Plain language is used in all communications exchanges


Span of control

A desirable range of from three to ten subordinates is assigned to any one supervisor for effective management


Unified command

When multiple agencies are involved, responsibility for the overall management of an incident is shared with all agencies contributing to the command process


Action plan

The plan addresses:
1. Strategic goals
2. Tactical objectives
3. All support activities and actions that are required for al responders and response agencies


Comprehensive resource management

Resources are identified, recorded and given status monitoring throughout all phases of the incident in order to maximize resource utilization, consolidate large numbers of individual resources, and reduce communications loading of radio channels


Modular format

A top down organizational structure is used for any incident.


"Top down"

Means that the command function is established by the first arriving officer


Five ICS areas of function necessary to respond effectively

1. Command
2. Operations
3. Planning
4. Logistics
5. Finance


Command function

Involves directing, ordering and controlling resources by virtue of explicit legal, agency or delegated authority


Operations function

Is responsible for management of all tactical activities including:

1. Medical response
2. Rescue
3. Fire suppression
4. Hazmat response


Planning function

The function for collection, evaluation, dissemination and use of information about the progress of the incident and the status of resources


This function plays a key role in the creation of a disaster/emergency specific action plan

Planning function


Logistics function

Is responsible for locating, organizing and providing facilities, services and materials for an incident


Finance function

Carefully records and justifies cost and financial operations and reimbursement of costs


Critical officer positions

1. Incident commander
2. Safety officer
3. Liaison officer
4. Operations section officer or chief
5. Planning officer
6. Logistics office
7. Staging area manager


Incident commander

The one person in overall charge of the operations

Is mandatory in all responses


Safety officer

Reports directly to command and can shut down operations if anything poses a threat to personnel safety

Position is mandatory for all responses


Liaison officer

Agency representatives work within the command function and decision making process with the incident commander through this position


Operations section officer or chief

Has primary responsibility for tactical operations taking place at any specific phase of the emergency's event


Planning officer

Responsible for the planning function

Reports to the incident commander


Logistics office

Oversees the logistics function and reports to the incident commander


Staging area manager

Controls the staging area

Dispatches resources when called for at the scene


Staging area

-is a resource-marshalling area
-units such as ambulances report while waiting for specific assignments and direction
-may be one or more established


Which resources should go to the immediate site vs the staging area?

Only those resources that can be readily employed and utilized at the scene.
The rest should be held in the staging area


Command post

-serves as the command center
-must contain necessary communications equipment to allow direction of units out in the field


Functions of command post

1. Serves as an operations center for command staff and community agency command staff away from the disaster scene to enable smooth operations at both command post and scene
2. Must serve as incoming center for incoming information from the scene and other site units and for outgoing information to the media and community
3. Can be a planned site at a fixed facility or a specially designed vehicle
4. One one per incident


Command post must have the following features:

1. Designated command post location
2. Alternative if primary site is unusable
3. Back up heat and or power/battery operated equipment
4. Necessary communications equipment
5. Adequate protection from potential hazards
6. Access to restroom facilities, water, garbage/sanitation supplies, food and utensils
7. Separate area for media briefings
8. Essential documents
9. Documentation capability
10. Controlled and secure access
11. Necessary information resources


Examples of necessary communications equipment for a command post

1. Telephones
2. Radios
3. Fax machine
4. Weather radio
5. Megaphone/PA system


Examples of essential documents needed at command post

1. Disaster plan
2. Emergency action plan
3. Other plans
4. Resources lists
5. Plot plans
6. Other essential documents


Examples of documentation capabilities needed for command post

1. Tape recorders
2. Forms
3. Copy machine
4. Clip boards
5. Computer diskettes
6. Office supplies


Examples of necessary information resources for a command post

1. MSDSs
2. DOT emergency response guidebook
3. NIOSH pocket guide
4. Chemical comparability charts


Key persons who gather at an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to coordinate their response to an event:

1. Department heads
2. Government officers and officials
3. Volunteer agency members


Most jurisdictions maintain an EOC as part of....

Their community's emergency preparedness program


EOC ---------- compete with the command post but operates --------

Does not

In conjunction with it


Important measures that need to be taken in the response phase to reduce legal liability

1. Reasoned actions, decisions and responses, including telephone, radio and traffic activities must be documented
2. Photographs and videos should be taken
3. All documents that have been collected should be retained
4. Work should be conducted within defined responsibilities and levels of authority
5. Records and reports should be filed promptly
6. Legal counsel may need to be consulted
7. If response deficiencies are noted, they should be corrected
8. Any new hazards identified during response should be noted, and arrangements should be made to mitigate them when the crisis is over


The news media represents the public's........

First Amendment right to know at a news incident


The press is committed to:

1. Finding out what has occurred
2. Providing objective and responsible reporting
3. Using the best information that can be obtained


Media needs of television reporter

Looking for a good shot


Media needs of radio reporter

Wants good sound bites


Media needs of newspaper reporter

Wants details and background information


Media needs of specialty media services

Want the story behind the story


Locations where media will be present

1. Incident site
2. Command and control centers
3. Fire and police stations
4. Offices of public officials


Media preparations needed for incident response

1. Site preselected for media operations and interviews
2. A pre packaged press kit


Example of items that could be contained in a press kit

1. Telephone numbers for press lines
2. Background information on emergency service units
3. Background information on emergency response teams
4. Glossary of terms used
5. Diagrams of specialized equipment
6. Training photographs
7. Explanation of procedures
8. Safety information
9. Interview procedures and policies
10. Information on past incidents and disasters



All personnel and major items of equipment (including crews) that are available to potentially available for assignment to incidents


Resources are described by several predetermined definitions:

1. Kind or function
2. Type or performance capability
3. Single resources are individual pieces of equipment and their personnel complement


Resources are defined in various combinations

1. A combination of single resources assembled for a particular operational need
2. A group of resources of the same kind and type


Task force

A combination of single resources assembled for a particular operational need, with common communications and a leader


Strike team

A group of resources of the same kind and type


A strike team is managed by....

A strike team leader


All resources will be on one of three category conditions

1. Assigned
2. Available
3. Out of service


Assigned resources

Resources that are performing active responses


Available resources

Resources that are available for immediate assignment and are usually in the staging area


Out of service resources

Resources that are not ready for response because of such factors as mechanical problems, rest periods or weather conditions


A major problem that can occur when resources are being assembled is that there are too many.....

Untrained personnel


Convergent volunteerism

The arrival of unexpected or uninvited personnel wishing to render aid at the scene of a large scale emergency incident


Communications are needed to....

1. Report initial and secondary emergencies
2. Warn personnel of hazards as they appear
3. Keep families and the community informed about what is happening at the facility
4. Coordinate evacuation and response actions
5. Keep in contact with emergency response agencies and command centers


Facility communications should be prioritized to.....

Identify those that should be restored first


Communications options include:

1. Messengers
2. Telephones
3. Cell phones
4. Portable microwave
5. Amateur radios
6. Point to point private lines
7. Satellite
8. High frequency radio
9. Two way radio
10. Fax machine
11. Dial up modems
12. Local area networks
13. Bull horn
14. Whistles/bells
15. Pagers
16. Hand signals


Considerations for evacuation of a facility or area:

1. Account


Types of untrained personnel that may show up at natural, technological and conflict origin disasters

1. Medical
2. Fire
3. Law enforcement
4. Civilian personnel


Why are communications necessary and a major need?

1. To report initial and secondary emergencies
2. To warn personnel of hazards as they appear
3. To keep families and community informed about what is happening at the facility
4. To coordinate evacuation and response actions
5. To keep in contact with emergency response agencies and command centers


Communications can be disrupted....

1. Short term
2. Total communications failure


Why should facility communications be prioritized?

To identify those that should be restored first


Communications options

1. Messengers
2. Telephones
3. Cell phones
4. Portable microwave
5. Amateur radio
6. Point to point private lines
7. Satellite
8. High frequency radio
9. Two way radio
10. Fax machine
11. Dial up modems
12. Local area networks
13. Bullhorn
14. Whistles/bells
15. Pagers
16. Hand signals


What types of communication systems should be considered to keep informed of disaster impacts and responses?

Battery operated systems

Ex: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radios and AM radios


Key points for consideration when evacuating a facility or area

1. Accounting for all personnel
2. Employee transportation needs for community wide evacuations
3. Special assistance for persons with disabilities and those who do not speak English
4. Posted evacuation procedures and routes
5. Critical operations continued or shut down
6. Primary and secondary evacuation routes that have emergency lighting in case of power outage
7. Evacuation routes and exits must be wide enough
8. Names and last known locations of unaccounted for personnel given to Emergency Operations Center
9. Accounting for nonemployees
10. Additional evacuation in case the incident worsens
11. Shelter provided within facility or away from facility in certain events
12. Need for emergency supplies
13. Coordination with local authorities
14. Search and rescue conducted only by trained and equipped professionals
15. Untrained employees not allowed to reenter damaged or contaminated facility until until professional responders have determined all clear


How do you account for all personnel after evacuation?

Using post evacuation assembly areas


Persons assigned to maintain critical operations during an evacuation must be trained to....

Recognize when to abandon the operation and evacuate themselves


Evacuation routes and emergency exits must be....

1. Wide enough to accommodate the number of evacuating personnel
2. Clear and unobstructed
3. Unlikely to expose evacuating personnel to any additional hazards


Examples of nonemployees that need to be accounted for post evacuation

1. Suppliers/vendors
2. Customers


Examples of additional evacuation that should be considered in case an incident worsens

1. Employees sent home by normal means
2. Provide transportation to off site location


Examples of incidents when shelter would be provided either on site or off site

1. Chemical releases
2. Tornado warnings
3. Parking lot shootings


Types of emergency supplies that should be thought about when long term sheltering is anticipated

1. Food
2. Water
3. Sanitation
4. Medical supplies


Key points for consideration when protecting facilities, equipment and vital records

1. Vital records can be protected by labeling and storing in insulated containers
2. Computer systems backed up and data stored off site
3. Additional security may be needed when an event affects a facility
4. Arrangements should be made for evacuation of critical original records
5. Arrangements for backup power


Example of critical original records that may need to be evacuated



Environmental protection considerations that may be needed:

1. Waterways may need to be protected
2. Soil may need to be collected and disposed of as hazardous waste
3. Air may need to be protected
4. National Response Center (NRC) must be notified
5. US Army Operations Center or Defense Logistics Agency may need to be reported to
6. FBI field office and local authorities may need to be notified


Waterways may need to be protected from...

Oil or chemical runoff


Example of how air may need to be protected

By preventing evaporation of volatile materials


When should the NRC be notified?

Immediately when dangerous goods or hazardous substances at or over reportable quantities are spilled


Phone number for NRC



Department of Defense military shipping incidents must be reported to:

US Army Operations Center
Defense Logistics Agency


What types of incidents are reported to US Army Operations Center?

Incidents involving explosives and ammunition


What types of incidents are reported to the Defense Logistics Agency?

Incidents involving non-explosive and non-ammunition military shipments


When should the FBI along with local authorities be notified?

Credible terrorist threat or of a suspected incident involving weapons of mass destruction


------- is the last phase of the disaster cycle



Recovery continues until....

Return to normal operation is accomplished


Recovery activities should always include....

Evaluation of ways to avoid future similar emergencies


Accurate ------ is important to the recovery process

Damage assessment


Recovery should not conflict with....

Crime scene preservation and examination


Fast recovery is desirable, but --------- must be established

The cause of the incident


Accurate projections of -------- should be estimated and communicated

Recovery times


Recovery times can last from.....

Days to weeks or even months


Often responders do not recognize the need to....

Take care of themselves and monitor their own emotional and physical health


Rescue and recovery operations take place in -------------. ----------- over long shifts can place emergency workers at greatly increased risk for injury

Extremely dangerous work environments

Mental fatigue


Co-workers may be intently focused on a particular task and may not notice.....

A hazard nearby, or behind, placing themselves and others at risk


The paths to recovery appear to be determined by:

1. The physical characteristics of the disaster agent
2. The types and quantities of community resources that survive the disaster
3. The external aid the community can obtain
4. The reconstruction strategies that these communities adopt and implement


The disaster recovery phase can be divided into the following periods of activity:

1. Restoration period
2. Reconstruction/ replacement period


Restoration period

1. Security of the damaged area is established
2. Repairs to utilities are made
3. Debris is removed
4. Evacuees return
5. Continuing care is provided to victims
6. Commercial, industrial and residential structures are repaired or prefabricated housing or other temporary structures go up and temporary bracing is installed for buildings and bridges


Reconstruction/ replacement period

Involves rebuilding capital stocks and getting the economy back to pre-disaster levels.

Period can take some years


During the recovery period public information should.....

Flow constantly to disaster victims and be monitored for effectiveness


A critical responsibility during recovery is to ensure that.....

Mandatory reports are made to various authorities


A fatality or multiple hospitalizations must be reported to OSHA within.....

8 hours


A recordable occupational injury or illness must be entered on the OSHA 300 log within.....

6 days


Release of a listed carcinogen must be reported to OSHA within.....

24 hours


Release of hazardous air pollutants must be reported to the EPA Regional Administrator at....

A time varying with the specific pollutant


In some cases, "less than reportable quantities" of a release must be reported to.....

Local, state and regional authorities


Types of reporting requirements

1. Federal
2. State
3. Regional
4. Local


Potential natural hazards that may results from hurricanes

1. Torrential rains
2. High winds
3. Ocean storm surges
4. Floods


------- are the most common natural disaster



Floods can also be caused by....

1. Spring rain
2. Heavy thunderstorms
3. Winter snow thaws
4. Failed dikes or dams
5. Ruptured water mains
6. Leaking water tanks


Planning for hurricanes includes the following:

1. Inspecting areas in the facility that could be subject to flooding or wind damage
2. Identify vulnerable records and equipment that can be moved to a higher location
3. Consider storing backup and data media in watertight containers
4. Plan to protect outside equipment and structures
5. Consider obtaining a NOAA Weather Radio with a warning alarm tone and backup battery for early natural disaster warning


Mitigation measures for hurricanes

1. Have the means and personnel available and trained to move equipment and other critical items to a safe location if a flood watch or warning is announced
2. In flood prone areas consider flood proofing the facility
3. New construction can be elevated on walls, columns or compacted fill
4. Careful assessment for floodplain locations is an important mitigation factor when new facility locations are be contemplated
5. Have backup systems ready for hurricane events
6. To protect from high winds, install window storm shutters
7. Identify alternate storm shelters, particularly underground shelter, for protection against high winds


Examples of ways to flood proof a facility

1. Blocking off windows and doors
2. Reinforcing and sealing walls
3. Installing check valves at utility or sewer line entrances
4. Constructing flood walls and levees outside


Examples of backup systems

1. Emergency lighting
2. Alternative power sources
3. Portable pumps


An alternate option to storm windows for protection from high winds

Cover windows with 5/8 inch marine plywood


Hurricanes can also spawn.....

1. Tornados
2. Thunderstorms
3. Heavy rains


Tornados can occur with.....

Little or no warning


Tornados can be idenfied by NOAA through....

Storm watches and reports


Steps to take with a tornado watch

1. Be ready to take shelter
2. Listen for radio announcements and community sirens


Steps to take with a tornado warning

1. Take shelter immediately
2. Understand that this means a tornado has been sighted or is showing on radar


Types of structures that are not tornado safe

Auditoriums, cafeterias and gymnasiums with flat wide-span roofs


Tornado planning and management considerations

1. Listen to NOAA storm watches and reports
2. Know when to be ready to take shelter and when to take shelter immediately
3. Identify designated tornado shelters
4. Have worker notification procedures established
5. Consider the need for spotters to watch for approaching storms and funnel clouds
6. Train an practice in tornado notify cation and shelter responses frequently


Earthquakes can occur....

Anywhere in the Uniter States, suddenly and without warning


Earthquakes can trigger other disaster events such as...

1. Fires
2. Explosions
3. Landslides
4. Tidal waves (tsunamis)
5. Floods


During an earthquake often the greatest danger to people occurs when....

Equipment and nonstructural elements such as ceilings, lighting fixtures, and windows shake loose


Planning for earthquakes includes.....

Assessment of the facility for vulnerability


Mitigation for earthquakes requires developing and prioritizing facility-strengthening measures such as:

1. Adding steel bracing and sheer walls to frames
2. Reinforcing columns and building foundations
3. Replacing unreinforced brick and facade


Interior mitigation for earthquakes includes:

1. Moving large and heavy objects to floor level
2. Securing shelves, furniture, computers and cabinets
3. Securing fixed machinery to the floor
4. Anchoring large utility and process piping
5. Installing safety glass


Hazardous material storage and earthquakes

Hazardous materials must be properly store dead in a manner than incompatible chemicals are not kept adjacent to each other


Training related to earthquakes should be provided to workers on:

1. Building evacuation procedures
2. Designated safe areas should evacuation be necessary
3. Preparation for aftershocks


Local government agencies and insurance carriers can provide the following resources for earthquakes:

1. Comprehensive area assessments
2. Planning and mitigation guidance
3. Response and restoration support


Guidelines provided for natural disasters can be applied to other events as well. The key to responding to each of these disasters is thorough:

1. Hazard identification
2. Vulnerability analysis
3. Planning
4. Mitigation measures
5. Well conceived plan with proper training and drills

Decks in Occupational & Environmental Health Class (49):