Disease at the cellular level Flashcards Preview

Pathology I Test I > Disease at the cellular level > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disease at the cellular level Deck (202)
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1

What is hypertrophy?

1) General increase in the bulk, not due to tumor formation
2) increase in size of cells not #

2

What happens to tissue once it stretches or stress is put on a tissue?

It will adapt to the stress

3

What is atrophy or hypotrophy?

wasting of tissue from death and reabsorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, decreased cellular volume, pressure, ischemia or malnutrition that leads to lessened function or hormonal changes

4

What causes atrophy in the brain?

Aging and reduced blood supply

5

How does a brain that has undergone atrophy appear grossly?

The brain has narrowed gyri and widened sulci

6

What causes atrophy of the thyroid gland?

Longstanding autoimmune disease

7

What is hyperplasia?

increase in # cells excluding tumor formation

8

What causes endometrial hyperplasia?

Estrogen.

9

What causes calluses on the heels of feet?

Stresses due to constant wear on feet (ie: tight shoes)

10

What is BPH?

Benigh Prostatic hyperplasia

11

What is hypoplasia?

incomplete development of tissue (ie: neural fold defects)

12

What is metaplasia?

reversible replacement of one differentiated cell type with another differentiated cell type (ie: barrett's esophagus where cells have migrated from the stomach to the esophagus due to constant stress)

13

What is anaplasia?

A change in the structure of cells and a change in their orientation to each other.

14

What is aplasia?

The defective development, or congenital absence of an organ or tissue

15

What is dysplasia?

Abnormal tissue growth with loss of cell orientation, shape, and size

16

Dysplasia is always what?

Pre-cancerous

17

What is cell injury?

When the limits of adaptive response is exceeded

18

What are the two types of cell injury?

Reversible and irreversible

19

What is reversible cell injury?

When the abnormal stress/stimuli persists for a short period of time

20

What is irreversible cell injury?

When the stress/stimuli persists or is severe

21

Is time a factor in cell injury?

Yes, it is a major factor for example drinking 1 beer will cause some reversible change but drinking 1 beer everyday for 30 years will be a persistent stimulus leading to irreversible change

22

What will swelling be like for reversible damage?

Generalized cell swelling

23

What is a bleb?

A bubble or outpouching of plasma membrane

24

Cells that bleb signify what type of cell injury?

Reversible

25

How does swelling of cells change for irreversible damage?

Increased swelling

26

What type of cell injury is plasma membrane damage?

Irreversible

27

What occurs in the ER with reversible Cell injury?

Swelling of the ER

28

What occurs in the ER with irreversible Cell injury?

Increased swelling of the ER

29

What happens to the ribosomes with reversible Cell injury?

Ribosomes detach from the ER

30

Cells with both reversible and irreversible damage have swollen mitochondria, but what is the difference in cells with irreversible damage?

They have vacuolization which is a Ca 2+ influx. due to membrane permeability