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Pathology I Test I > Tissue Repair > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tissue Repair Deck (54)
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1

Chronic inflammation heals how?

Fibrosis.

2

How is Regeneration of stable tissue achieved?

Compensatory growth.

3

How is Regeneration of renewing tissue achieved?

Regrowing.

4

What leads to commitment of stem cells to differentiate into specific cells?

Activation of key regulatory proteins by growth factors and cytokines.

5

What does the Transduciton systems require to function?

Cell-surface receptors

6

Transduction system that has tyrosine kinase receptors bind to what?

Growth factor.

7

What happens when growth factor binds to a tyrosine kinase receptor?

Dimerization and autophosphorylation of tyrosine residue.

8

With a partial hepatectomy what happens during DNA replication?

incorporation of tritiated thymidine.

9

What does an activated RAS from a bridging potein activate?

RAF or MAP kinase kinase kinase

10

What does RAF phophorylate?

MEK or MAP kinase kinase

11

What does MEK phosphrylate?

ERK or Map Kinase

12

What does ERK phosphorylate?

Cytoplasmic proteins and nuclear transcription factors

13

With a partial hepatectomy what happens during DNA replication?

incorporation of tritiated thymidine.

14

What happens with a partial hepatectomy?

Remaining part enlarges. The missing part is not replaced.

15

What are the 3 stages of activating something to undergo enlargment?

1. Priming.
2. Proliferation.
3. Growth inhibition.

16

What signals the priming stage of tissue regeneration?

Cytokines: TNF, IL-6, others ( to cause the cells to enter the cell cycle.)

17

What will activate the proliferation stage of tissue regeneration?

Growth factors: HGF, TGF-alpha, others. (to make the cells progress through the cell cycle and undergo DNA replication)

18

What will inhibit growth?

TGF-Beta, Activin, others.

19

What are the adjuvants (helpers) of the proliferation phase?

Norepinephrine, insulin, thyroid hormone, growth hormone.

20

What are the major components of the ECM?

Collagen, proteoglycans, and adhesive glycoproteins.

21

What vitamin is needed for HO-ization?

Ascorbic acid. (Vitamin C)

22

What is fibronectin?

2 glycoprotein chains held by disulfide bonds.

23

What binds ECM components and interacts with the cytoskeleton at focal adhesions complexes?

Integrin.

24

What induces Angiogenesis from the bone marrow and pre-existing vessels?

Mobilization of the Endothelial precursor cells (EPC)

25

EPC's from the bone marrow migrate to where?

Site of injury or tumor growth.

26

What do EPC's do at sites of injury?

They differentiate and form a mature network of vessels.

27

What are MMP's?

Matrix metalloproteinase. They help degrade collagen and other ECM proteins.

28

MMP's are dependent on what mineral?

Zinc.

29

What are the 4 mechanisms of MMP regulation?

1. regulation of synthesis by growth factors or cytokines.
2. Inhibition of synthsis by corticosteroids or TGF-beta.
3. secreted in inactive form.
4. Blockage of the enzymes by specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase.

30

The inflammation phase of wound healing lasts how long?

3 days.