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Flashcards in Diseases Deck (20)
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1

Acute Bronchitis

Inflammation of the bronchi that is caused by infection of the associated tissue

Productive cough
Wheezes
Chest congestion
Sinus congestion
Sore throat
Possible fever
Dizziness
Fatigue
Sternal chest pain

2

Acute respiratory failure

Inadequate exchange of gases between the respiratory and circulatory system
- Type 1 = hypoxemic
- Type 2 = hypercapneic

Acute onset
Initial increase in respiratory effort
Bronchospasm
Type 1 - cyanosis and s/s of hypoxia
Type 2 - hyperapnea, flushed skin, tachypnea, PVCs, dizziness, confusion

3

Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema; buildup of fluid in the alveoli due to increased permeability in the alveolar capillary membrane

Prevents O2 from getting into the bloodstream, making the lungs heavy and stiff

Crackles in lungs
Hypotension
Tachycardia
Laboured, rapid respirations
Shortness of breath
Usually develops within 24-48 hours after original illness/injury

4

Aspiration

Intrusion of foreign matter into lung parenchyma, causing loss of homeostasis

Breakdown of lung tissue caused directly (pH/surfactant changes) or secondary to infection causes fluid shifts that prevent effective gas exchange; mechanical obstructions can create poor oxygenation

Cyanosis
Cough
Increased respiratory effort and SOB
Chest pain
Altered LOC
Heoptysis
Halitosis (bad breath)
Fever/chills secondary to infection

5

Asthma

A common chronic obstructive inflammatory disease of the respiratory system characterized by increased responsiveness to multiple antigens

Response to antigens causes smooth muscle constriction of the bronchioles and increases mucous production which initiates narrowing of the airways and decreases airflow

S/S depend on severity
Chest tightness with productive cough
Cyanosis
Accessory muscle use
Tripod position
Tracheal tug
Wheezing/Rhonchi
Dyspnea/tachypnea
Tachycardia

6

Chronic bronchitis

Progressive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that results from an inflammation of the bronchioles causing large amounts of mucous in the airways

Constant exposure to irritants will cause edema, inflammation, and increase production of mucous from goblet cells

Productive cough
Dyspnea
Prolonged expiration
Cyanosis
Grey/white sputum
Weight gain from edema (blue bloaters)

7

Emphysema

Destruction of the alveolar walls; decreased lung elasticity

Barrel chest
Dyspnea
Pursed lip breathing
Tachypnea
Prolonged expiratory phase
Polyythemia
Hyperresonance
Weight loss
Fatigue
“Pink puffers”

8

Hyperventilation syndrome

An increase in the rate and depth of breathing with the absence of wheezing; decreased CO2, and increased O2 and pH; body goes into respiratory alkalosis

Causes generally unknown

Tetany (numbness/tingling in extremities)
Chest pain
Dizziness
Syncope
Generalized weakness
May hear decreased lung sounds due to rapid influx and out flux of air

9

Lung cancer

Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs, which interferes with lung function

Stage 1: only in lungs
Stage 2: in lungs and lymph nodes
Stage 3: in lungs and lymph nodes in the centre of the chest
Stage 4: in both lungs as well a s the fluid surrounding the lungs

Cough that does not go away
Coughing up blood
Chest pain on deep respiration
Tired/weak
SOB
Atelectasis
Post obstructive pneumonia
Hemoptysis
Peripheral tumours cause pleural effusion

10

Pleuritis (Pleurisy)

Inflammation of the parietal and visceral pleura that surround the lungs; when pleura rub together and create inflammation, more fluid is secreted into the pleural cavity; may cause pleural effusion

Pleuritic pain (sharp, stabbing with every breath)
Rales over site of pleural friction rub

11

Pleural effusion

An excess accumulation of fluid between the pleural layers that line the lungs and the chest cavity

Two types: transudative, exudative

SOB
Chest pain
Pleuritic pain that worsens with palpation (can radiate)
Absent lung sounds in affected area, or mild crackles where fluid present

12

Pneumonia

Acute infection of the lung parenchyma that impairs gas exchange; inflammation and fluid accumulation resulting in consolidation

Fever
Productive cough
Chills
Dyspnea
Green mucous
Crackles, or absent when severe

13

Pulmonary edema

Excess fluid builds up in the lungs, causing mild to severe SOB; body cannot adequately absorb fluids

Caused by heart muscle dysfunction, heart valve dysfunction, and other dysfunctions like renal failure

Tripod position
May be in full respiratory distress
Starts with wheezes or crackles (mild to moderate) progressing to decreased or absent lung sounds (generally in bases)

14

Pulmonary embolism

Condition resulting from a floating embolism that becomes lodged in the pulmonary circulation; restricts blood flow through pulmonary circulation; rapid decrease in oxygen rich blood returning to the heart and rest of body

Usually caused by DVT

Sudden onset of localized chest pain
Dyspnea
Thready weak carotid pulses
Localized crackles (late sign)

15

Toxic inhalation

Inhalation causes minor to severe respiratory distress, including permanent lung damage or death

CO poisoning a result of greater affinity for hemoglobin, preventing O2 from reaching body tissues/cells

H2S causes respiratory paralysis and asphyxiation; caustic at 50-100ppm)

CO s/s = dull headache, SOB, confusion, weakness, dizziness, N/V; at high levels chest pain, blurred vision

H2S s/s = pulmonary edema, loss of consciousness, death; at lower levels, eye irritation, sore throat/cough, SOB, fluid in lungs, ECG may show myocardial infarction

16

Tuberculosis

Contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs, but can spread to other organs; infectious particles reach alveoli, macrophages engulf bacteria, and then transmit them to the lymph system and blood stream

Weight loss
Decreased energy/appetite
Fever
Productive cough
Night sweats
Diminished breath sounds, bronchial breaking, tracheal deviation, course crackles

17

Bronchiolitis

Inflammation and mucous production in the tertiary airways of the lung (children)

Increased mucus
Hypo/hyperthermia
Labour breathing
Nasal flaring
Accessory muscle use
Cyanosis
Fatigue
Wheezing cough
Wheezes/crackles

18

Croup

Upper respiratory obstruction secondary to glottis or subglottic infection; inflammation and edema develops around the larynx

Primarily in children between 6 months - 5 years; usually viral infection (parainfluenza); bacterial very rare, but much higher mortality

Hoarse voice
Barking cough
Fever
Stridor
Respiratory distress
Change in mental status from hypoxia/fatigue
Accessory muscle use, in drawing, sternal retractions
Lungs usually clear

19

Cystic fibrosis

Chronic disease caused by genetics that creates a dysfunction of the exocrine glands that cause increased viscosity of mucous gland secretions

Caused by mutation in CFTR gene - encodes protein that involves chloride transportation across epithelial membranes

Wheezes
Dry, nonproductive cough
Dyspnea
Tachypnea
Barrel chest
Secretions in bronchioles
Cyanosis
COPD
Clubbing of fingers and toes
N/V

20

Epiglottitis

Acute inflammation of the epiglottis and surrounding tissue; edema of epiglottis results in partial/complete airway obstruction

Drooling
Fever
Sore throat
Dysphagia
Anxiety
Tripoding/sniffing position
Accessory muscle use
Major work of breathing
Stridor