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1

Respiration

Exchange of gases between a living organism and its environment

2

Three processes of respiration

Ventilation
Diffusion
Perfusion

3

Ventilation

Mechanical process of moving air in and out of the lungs (inspiration and expiration)

4

Diffusion

Movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration

5

Perfusion

Circulation of blood through the capillaries

6

What is the upper airway responsible for?

Warming and humidifying incoming air

7

What is the lower airway responsible for?

Area where the respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs

8

Five functions of the nose

1. Passage of air into respiratory system
2. Warms air prior to entering lungs
3. Moistens air before entering lungs
4. Filters/cleans air of particles before entering lungs
5. Speech resonating chamber

9

Three regions of Pharynx

Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

10

Type 1 epithelial cells

Simple squamous
Assist with diffusion of gases

11

Type 2 epithelial cells

Septal cells
- Produce surfactant Wichita lowers surface tension of fluid on alveoli
- Prevents collapse of alveoli

12

Alveolar macrophages

Wandering phagocytes that remove fine dust particles and other debris in the alveolar spaces

13

Requirements for pulmonary perfusion

1. Adequate blood volume
2. Intact pulmonary capillaries
3. Efficient pumping action by the heart

14

Boyle’s Law

When temperature is constant, the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume

- Lungs function by increasing/decreasing pressure to cause air to rush in or out

15

Dalton’s Law

Each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure (as if all other gases were not present)

Partial pressure of atmosphere and alveolar is 760 mmHg (torr)

16

Henry’s Law

Quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid depends upon the amount of gas present and its solubility coefficient

17

How does respiratory drive work?

Chemoreceptors in medulla are stimulated by an increase in PaCO2 or a decrease in pH

18

How does hypoxia drive work?

Chemoreceptors in aortic arch and carotid bodies are stimulated by a decrease in PaCO2
- Increases respiratory stimulation in people with chronic respiratory disease

19

What is the main respiratory centre?

Medulla oblongata

20

Apneustic centre

Assumes respiratory control if medulla fails to initiate impulses

21

Pneumotaxic centre

Controls expiration

22

Pons

Influences activity of medulla responses and smooths out transition between both respiratory phases

23

Two areas of medulla oblongata

Dorsal respiratory group - inspiratory centre that controls external intercostal and diaphragm

Ventral respiratory centre - inspiratory and expiratory centres, but mainly activated when O2 demands increase

24

External expiration

Gases diffuse from an area of high partial pressure to areas of low partial pressure

- exchange of gases between air and blood
- deoxygenated blood becomes saturated

25

Internal respiration

Exchange of gases between blood and tissues
Conversion of oxygenated blood into deoxygenated blood
Observe diffusion of O2 inward, and CO2 outward

26

Factors affecting hemoglobin binding

- Acidity
- Partial pressure of CO2
- Temperature
- BPG (2,3- biphoshoglycerate)

27

Average lung capacity of adult male

6 litres
- only a fraction is used during normal breathing

28

Tidal volume

Measure of depth of breathing
- Volume of air inhaled/exhaled during a single respiratory cycle
- Inspiratory reserve volume and dead space

29

Alveolar volume

Remaining volume of inhaled air
- reaches alveoli and undergoes gas exchange

alveolar volume = tidal volume - dead space volume

30

Minute volume

Amount of air that moves into and out of the respiratory tract per minute
- normally about 5600 mL
- increases if tidal volume or respiratory rate increase and vice versa

Tidal volume (minus dead space) x respiratory rate