Diseases of Nervous System and Eyes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases of Nervous System and Eyes Deck (163)
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1

Bacterial Meningitis
Major Symptoms

Sudden high fever and *severe meningeal inflammation*

2

Bacterial Meningitis
Causative Organsism(s) x5

Neisseria meningitidis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae b
Listeria monocytogenes
Streptococcus agalactiae

3

Bacterial Meningitis
Neisseria meningitidis
Type of Pathogen

Bacteria (Gram -)

4

Bacterial Meningitis
Neisseria meningitidis
Mode of Transmission

Respiratory droplets

5

Bacterial Meningitis
Neisseria meningitidis
Key Associations

N. meningitidis known as the *"meningococcus" purple spotted rash; Most common cause of meningitis in those <20* (collegee students in dorms *23x more likely*)

6

Bacterial Meningitis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Type of Pathogen

Bacteria (Gram +)

7

Bacterial Meningitis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Mode of Transmission

Respiratory droplets

8

Bacterial Meningitis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Key Associations

known as *the "pneumococcus"; most common bacterial meningitis in adults*

9

Bacterial Meningitis
Haemophilus influenzae b
Type of Pathogen

Bacteria (Gram -)

10

Bacterial Meningitis
Haemophilus influenzae b
Mode of Transmission

Respiratory droplets

11

Bacterial Meningitis
Haemophilus influenzae b
Key Associations

Commonly causes meningitis in *children <18 months)*

12

Bacterial Meningitis
Listeria monocytogenes
Type of Pathogen

Bacteria (Gram +)

13

Bacterial Meningitis
Listeria monocytogenes
Mode of Transmission

Contaminated food and drink

14

Bacterial Meningitis
Listeria monocytogenes
Key Associations

*elderly, babies, pregnant women*

15

Bacterial Meningitis
Streptococcus agalactiae
Type of Pathogen

Bacteria (Gram +)

16

Bacterial Meningitis
Streptococcus agalactiae
Mode of Transmission

At birth via passage through birth canal or by health care personnel

17

Bacterial Meningitis
Streptococcus agalactiae
Key Associations

Meningitis in *premature babies and infants < 3 months*

18

Hansen's Disease
AKA

Leprosy

19

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)
Major Symptoms

*Tuberculoid leprosy: nonprogressive*, regions of *lost sensation* as a result of nerve damage;
*Lepromatous leprosy: progressive*, gradual loss of facial features, digits, other body structures

20

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)
Causative Organism

Mycobacterium leprae

21

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)
Type of Pathogen

Bacteria (acid-fast)

22

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)
Mode of Transmission

Person-to-person contact or break in the skin; can also be acquired from handling or consuming armadillos

23

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)
Key Associations

*Strong* immune system = *tuberculoid leprosy*;
Weaker immune system = *lepromatous leprosy*;
death is *rare*

24

Botulism
Major Symptoms

Intoxication; *flaccid paralysis; Death* can result from asphyxiation- *cannot inhale*

25

Botulism
Causative Organism

Clostridium botulinum

26

Botulism
Type of Pathogen

Bacteria (Gram +)

27

Botulism
Mode of Transmission

Contaminated food (esp home-canned); honey (infants); endospores enter wounds

28

Botulism
Key Associations

*Extremely potent; Infant botulism most common form in US; "floppy baby syndrome"; Category A* Bio-terrorist threat

29

Tetanus
AKA

Lockjaw

30

Tetanus (Lockjaw)
Major Symptoms

Characteristic *severe muscular contraction; lockjaw*; sweating, drooling, grouchiness, constant back spasms; *death* from asphyxiation- *cannot exhale*