Flashcards in Diuretics and Renal Replacement Therapy Deck (65):
What is a diuretic?
A substance/drug that promotes diuresis
(Increased renal excretion)
What percentage is the normal fractional excretion of Na+?
Less than or equal to 1%
Aldosterone increases the expression of which channels/transporters?
How do loop diuretics work and give an example?
Act on the loop of Henle
Block NKCC2 cotransporter
How do thiazides work and give an example?
Act on early DCT
Block NaCl cotransporter
How do K+ sparing diuretics work and give an example?
Act on late DCT and CD
Block ENaC channels
How do aldosterone antagonists work and give an example?
Competitive inhibition of aldosterone on principle cells in late DT and CD
How does mannitol work?
Use small molecules to increase osmolarity of filtrate
Increased water excretion (decreased water reabsorption)
How are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors used as a diuretic?
Prevents uptake of bicarbonate as it cannot from water and CO2 to enter the cells
However can lead to metabolic acidosis due to all the bicarbonate in the urine
How do loop diuretics affect magnesium and calcium?
Magnesium and calcium reabsorption rely on the gradient of the thick ascending limb LOH
Therefore loop diuretics inhibit their reabsorption
Increased loss of calcium and magnesium
Can cause hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesiumia
Why are loop diuretics chosen to help heart failure failure and acute pulmonary oedema?
They are very potent diuretics
What can we use loop diuretics to treat?
Why are thiazides good diuretics for the elderly?
Blocking Na+ reabsorption increases the Ca2+ reabsorption
Good for the elderly who are prone to osteoporosis
Why are thiazides ineffective in renal failure?
Less potent as only 5% sodium reabsorption inhibited
What are thiazides widely used for and why?
Decreased effective circulating volume and cause vasodilation
What is the potential problem when using thiazides?
Why are K+ sparing diuretics often a bad choice?
Mild diuretics therefore cannot cope with large volume increases
Can produce severe hyperkalaemia esp if used in conjunction with ACEi, K+ supplements or in pts with renal failure
What is the preferred drug to treat ascites and oedema in cirrhosis?
Which diuretics are often used in conjunction for heart failure?
Why do we have to be careful when using diuretics?
Decreased circulatory volume and reduce perfusion pressure to the kidneys
This can activate RAAS
Causes water retention (counter productive)
Describe nephrotic syndrome
Increase in glomerular BM permeability to proteins
Low plasma albumin - decreased oncotic pressure - oedema
What is ascites?
Free fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Describe hepatic encephalopathy
Reversible syndrome of impaired brain function
Occurs in cirrhosis with advanced liver failure
Causes confusion and comas
Signs - constructional apraxia (cannot draw a 5 pointed star) and flapping tremors
Includes elevated ammonia levels in blood
Hypokalaemia can cause this
Name some adverse effects of diuretics
Decreased blood volume - postural hypotension, dehydration
Increased uric acid levels - gout
Erectile dysfunction (thiazides)
How can alcohol affect blood volume levels?
Inhibits ADH release
How does coffee affect the kidney?
Decreased Na+ reabsorption
Increased loss of Na+ and water
Define end stage renal failure (ESRF)
When death is likely without renal replacement therapy
eGFR < 15 ml/min
Give some symptoms/signs of ESRF
Tiredness - overwhelming fatigue physically and mentally
Volume overload - oedema, SoB
Sexual dysfunction/reduced fertility
What percentage of patients with CKD are hypertensive?
If you have no ADH, how much urine could be produced a day?
Give some symptoms of uraemia
Why do lots of drugs require dose alteration with CKD?
Reduced metabolism and/or elimination of the drug
Drug sensitivity can be increased
What are the treatment options when the kidneys fail?
Artificial pump in system to keep at high enough pressure
Gets rid of waste products in blood over artificial membrane
Enters back into venous system
A fistula has to be created between an artery and vein
How often does haemodialysis have to be performed?
3 times a week
What are the advantages and disadvantages of haemodialysis?
Advantages: less responsibility, days off treatment
Disadvantages: travel to hospital/waiting, 'tied' to your dialysis time, restrictor on travel, restrictions on fluid and food intake
Approximately how many tablets per day do people on haemodialysis have to take?
What are the contraindications for haemodialysis?
Failed vascular access
What are some complications of haemodialysis?
Lines: infection, thrombosis, venous stenosis
Thrombosis, bleeding, access failure - steal syndrome
Feel chronically unwell
Describe peritoneal dialysis
Waste products cross semi-permeable peritoneal membrane into the peritoneal cavity
Can do 4-5 bags throughout the day (30 min each)
Or can do overnight
What are the advantages and disadvantages to peritoneal dialysis?
Advantages: independence, less fluid/food restrictions, fairly easy to travel, renal function may be better preserved
Disadvantages: frequent daily exchanges, responsibility of own care
Approximately how many medications does a patient on peritoneal dialysis have to take per day?
SC EPO injection
What are the contraindications for peritoneal dialysis?
Failure of peritoneal membrane
Adhesions, previous abdo surgery, hernia, stoma
Patient or carer unable to connect/disconnect themselves
Obese/large muscle mass
How often do patients on peritoneal dialysis get peritonitis?
Once every 20 months on average
Give some complications of peritoneal dialysis
Development of hernia
Describe home/nocturnal haemodialysis
Same as haemodialysis but at home and possibly overnight
Allows more dialysis hours so better clearance
Requires someone at home with you - as if it goes wrong you can bleed out v rapidly
What are the advantages of home haemodialysis?
Patient often feels better
Patient often needs fewer medications
Can pick your own schedule
Can do it overnight so doesn't interfere
Does a transplant have a higher or lower mortality/morbidity than dialysis?
Better quality of life too
For how long is the peri-operative risk after transplant?
What are the peri-operative risks of kidney transplant?
Dampening of immune system:
Risk of diabetes and hypertension from meds (steroids)
What vessels do they connect renal transplants to?
What are the different types of transplant?
Live donor (related or unrelated)
Deceased after brain death (DBD)
Deceased after circulatory death (DCD)
Kidney transplants are matched according to ...
Tissue match - blood type and HLA
Length of time on waiting list
What is the average wait for a kidney from a deceased donor?
What is the average life of the transplanted kidney from a live related donor?
What is the average life of the transplanted kidney from a live unrelated donor?
What is the average life of a transplanted kidney form a DBD donor?
How many immunosuppressants are you generally on after a kidney transplant?
What are the problems with being on immunosuppressants after a kidney transplant?
LOTS of side effects
Including being nephrotoxic
Dialysis tends to prolong survival by how long?
What is the average life expectancy of people diagnosed with ESRD aged 25-29 years?
18 years from diagnosis
What is the greatest killer in dialysis patients?
What is the greatest killer in transplant patients?
What is your daily fluid allowance if you are anuric and on dialysis?