Embryology Of Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Embryology Of Urinary System Deck (22):
1

What are the 3 developmental stages of the kidneys?

Pronephric
Mesonephric
Metanephric

2

When is the primordium of the gut formed?

During embryological folding
(Endoderm lined tube suspended within a cavity)

3

Name the 2 areas that have no mesoderm after gastrulation

Buccopharyngeal membrane (cranial)
Cloacal membrane (caudal)

4

How do areas with no mesoderm become openings?

No mesoderm therefore no blood vessels
The avascular tissue dies to create an opening

5

Describe the pronephros

Appears in the cervical region (head and neck region)
Creates the pronephric duct which extends from the cervical region to the cloaca
Drives the development of the next stage

6

Describe the mesonephros

The stage that takes over from the pronephros
Occupies a trench within the entire trunk of the embryo
Takes over the use of the duct

7

Describe the metanephros

The true kidney
Appears in the pelvic region

8

What is a nephrotome?

A primitive/prototype nephron

9

What is the urogenital ridge?

Region of the intermediate mesoderm giving rise to both the embryonic kidney and the gonad

10

Where does the ureteric bud sprout from?

Mesonephric duct

11

What is the role of the ureteric bud?

Development of the ureters
Induces development in caudal region on the embryo
Releases signals to the intermediate mesoderm

12

How can accessory renal arteries form?

As the kidneys move they sprout new vessels from the abdominal aorta. Usually the old vessels regress but if not then you get accessory vessels.

13

Splitting of the ureteric bud can lead to:

Another lobe of the kidney formed
2 kidneys on one side
Extra ureters (lead to ectopic ureteral openings)

14

What is the cloaca?

Where the GI, urinary and reproductive tracts all end early in development

15

What is the urogenital sinus?

Created from the hindgut by the formation of the urorectal septum (wedge of mesoderm that grows down)
Separates the urinary and GI tracts
Continuous with the umbilicus via the urachus
Divided into 3 sections

16

What are the 3 sections of the urogenital sinus called?

Upper (-> bladder)
Pelvic (-> urethra)
Phallic

17

What is the adult derivative of the urachus?

Median umbilical ligament

18

Males retain which duct to form the vas deferens?

Mesonephric duct

19

Name the parts of the male urethra

4 parts:
Pre-prostatic
Prostatic
Membranous (above 3 = pelvic part of UGS)
Spongy (phallic part of UGS)

20

How does the spongy urethra form in men?

Genital tubercle elongate and genital folds fuse to form the spongy urethra
Driven by male sex hormones

21

Where does the urethra open in the female?

Vestibule

22

What is hypospadias?

Defect in the fusion of urethral folds
Urethra opens onto ventral surface of penis rather than at the end of the glans