Diversity of Life Flashcards Preview

Life Science 2 > Diversity of Life > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diversity of Life Deck (123):
1

atmosphere contains --% oxygen

21

2

chlorophyll reflects green light and absorbs wavelengths of --

red and blue light (660 and 430 nm)

3

plants' roots anchor and also --

absorb water and nutrients

4

root hairs increase the --

absorption surface area

5

-- carries water and minerals up to the leaves

xylem

6

-- carries glucose from the leaves

phloem

7

gas exchange and transpiration occur through the -- whose opening is regulated by --

stomata, guard cells

8

stomata will open when the guards cells become --

turgid/swollen

9

stomata will close when K+ is moved out of the cell causing water to leave as well and make the guard cells --

flaccid/shrunken

10

turgidity of guard cells are caused by

accumulation of K+ ions

11

male reproductive organ of angiosperms

stamen

12

female reproductive organ of angiosperms

carpel

13

stamen is made up of --

anther and filament

14

carpel is made up of --

stigma, style, and ovary

15

inside a carpel's ovary are --

ovule, embryo sac, and egg

16

pollen is carried from the -- to the --

stamen to the stigma

17

-- develops into the fruit

ovary

18

fruit protects the seed that developed from the --

ovule

19

all fungi are -- meaning that they gain nutrients from other organisms

heterotrophs

20

fungi secrete enzymes to break down organic molecules and absorb them through --

the cell membrane

21

fungi feed on dead/decaying organisms or have -- relationships with living organisms

parasitic

22

a multicellular fungus' -- is the structure that grows near food sources

mycelium

23

part of the mycelium that are filaments where the nucleus of each cell is located

hyphae

24

fungi are classified by

reproductive structures and mechanisms

25

in fungal asexual reproduction, -- are formed in specialized structures and perform mitosis to generate offspring

spores

26

sometimes, fungal spores are not used in reproduction as cell fragment to form new cells in the process of --

budding

27

sexual reproduction is a less common means of reproduction in -- and often occurs only when environmental factors are poor

fungi

28

In fungal sexual reproductions, two gametes fuse resulting in a diploid cell that performs meiosis and produces --

haploid spores

29

single celled fungi, reproduce by budding

yeasts

30

"sac fungi" that contain --, which are sacs that contain haploid spores

asci

31

"club fungi" that form -- (club-shaped structures) that contain haploid spores

basidia

32

perform sexual reproduction by gamete fusion, meiosis, and the production of haploid spores

zygomycetes

33

produce flagellated spores; most species are parasites or decomposers that live in water

chytrids

34

"imperfect fungi" always reproduce asexually

deuteromycetes

35

formed from an interaction between fungus and a photosynthesized such as algae

lichens

36

includes organisms that have a prokaryotic cell that lacks a nucleus

monera

37

Bacteria are classified by the way they -- from the environment or on their oxygen requirements

obtain nutrients

38

bacterial species that produce their own nutrients through the process of photosynthesis, using CO2 from the environment

photoautotrophs

39

bacteria that photosynthesize but cannot use CO2 from the environment; get carbon from other sources

photoheterotrophs

40

bacteria that get their energy from inorganic compounds and their carbon from CO2

chemoautotrophs

41

bacteria that get their energy from inorganic compounds and carbon not from CO2

chemoheterotrophs

42

bacteria that always require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration

obligate aerobes

43

bacteria that never need oxygen and generally not dividing and some cases can be killed by exposure to oxygen

obligate anaerobes

44

bacteria that only need oxygen sometimes

facultative anaerobes

45

bacteria that are circular in shape, they may exist singly, in pairs, in clusters, or in chains

cocci

46

bacteria that are rod or oblong shaped; they may occur in chains

bacilli

47

bacteria that have a spiral shape

spirilli

48

circular bateria that exist in pairs

diplococci

49

circular bacteria that exist in cluster

staphylococci

50

circular bacteria that exist in chains

streptococci

51

its cell envelope consists of cell membrane a thick cell wall made of peptidoglycan (murein)

gram-positive bacteria

52

its cell envelope consists of a cell membrane (inner membrane), the perisplasm, thin cell wall made of peptidoglycan, and and outer membrane

gram-negative bacteria

53

space between the inner and outer membrane

periplasm

54

some bacterial cells contain small additional loops of DNA called --

plasmids

55

plasmids often contain genes to code for --

resistance

56

-- is a layer of sugars and proteins on the outer surface of some bacterial cells that forms a sticky layer that can help the cell attach to surfaces and keep bacterial cells from being phagocytosed

capsule

57

bacterial flagella consist of the protein flagellin in a hollow, helical conformation that anchors into the --

cell membrane

58

-- in the cell membrane provides power to rotate each flagellum

proton pump

59

-- are tiny proteins that generally cover the surface of some types of bacterial cells to assist in adhesion

pili

60

A few species of bacteria are cable of creating -- when environmental conditions are not favorable

spores

61

when bacteria are in spore form they are capable of surviving --

bad conditions for years

62

Since bacteria lack nucleus they cannot perform --

mitosis

63

bacteria divide by --

binary fission

64

three ways to introduce variation into bacterial population

mutation, conjugation, or transformation

65

in the process of -- one bacterial cell copies its plasmid which is passed to another cell

conjugation

66

most commonly studied type of plasmid to be passed is called

F plasmid (F factor)

67

the physical connection between F+ and F-

sex pilus

68

sex pilus is made by

male or F+

69

once conjugation is complete, both cells are -- and contain the plasmid

male

70

Using conjugation provides a -- mechanism to pass plasmids within a population

rapid

71

T or F: sometimes plasmids become integrated into the chromosomes and so some of the bacterial chromosome can be transferred during conjugation

true

72

some bacteria are resistant to multiple antibiotics because they have picked up several -- (which encode for resistance) via conjugation

plasmids

73

some bacteria pick up DNA from their environment and incorporate it into their own chromosomal DNA

transformation

74

bacteria capable of transformation are termed

competent

75

T or F: bacteria can only be naturally competent

false: some bacteria are naturally competent others can be coerced to develop competence by artificial lab means

76

regulation of bacterial gene expression is primarily by

operons

77

-- on the DNA where RNA polymerase must bind

promoter sequence

78

Can the gene be transcribed if the promoter is inaccessible?

no

79

-- on the DNA where a repressor protein can bind

operator sequence

80

When a repressor is bound to the operator, the promotor sequence will be blocked such that the -- cannot access the site

RNA polymerase

81

A -- that produces a repressor protein when expressed

regulator gene

82

-- which are actual genes being regulated by the operon

structural genes

83

operons that are "off"

inducible

84

operons that are "on"

repressible

85

In an inducible operon, the repressor always binds to the -- so that transcription is always prevented unless an inducer is present

operator

86

When a -- is present, it binds to the repressor, preventing the repressor from binding to the operator --> transcription

inducer

87

In repressible operon systems, the repressor is always -- such that transcription always occurs

inactive

88

In repressible operon systems, only when a -- is present to interact with the repressor can transcription be inhibited

corepressor

89

All operons have 4 basic features

promoter sequence, operator sequence, regulator gene, and structural genes

90

Stages of bacterial growth cycle

lag, logarithmic growth, stationary phase, and decline

91

In bacteria, there is an initial -- in growth that occurs when a new population of bacteria begins to reproduce

lag

92

lag time is normally --

brief

93

As bacteria begin to perform binary fission at a very rapid rate, -- occurs

logarithmic growth

94

As the number of bacteria increase, resources such as food and space decrease and while some bacteria are still dividing, some are dying which evens out the population

stationary phase

95

As the population hits it maximum, the lack of nutrients as well as toxins means that the population will begin to --

decline

96

During decline, few species of bacteria will start making --

spores

97

most yeasts and some molds

ascomycetes

98

fungi all sexual reproduction via conjugation and nuclear fission (mushrooms)

basidiomycetes

99

most bread molds

zygomycetes

100

viruses only need -- and --

genetic material (DNA or RNA) and capsid (protective protein coat)

101

T or F: viruses can self-assemble

true

102

T or F: The viral genome (a collection of all the genes present) can consist of only a few genes

False: they can range up to a few 100 genes

103

viruses are categorized as

animal viruses, plant viruses or bacteriophages

104

In order for a virus to infect a cell, that cell must have a -- for the virus

receptor

105

Viruses can -- another substance for which a cell has a legitimate need and thus have a receptor for it

mimic

106

After bidding to a host cell's membrane receptor, the viral genetic material enters the host by -- or --

injecting itself across the cell membrane or endocytosis

107

Because each virus contains a copy of the original genetic material, they should all b genetically --

identical

108

-- are the primary ways to induce variation into the viral population

mutations

109

Release of new viruses can be via -- of the cell membrane which immediately kills the host cell

lysis

110

the new viruses are shipped out of the host cell via exocytosis

budding

111

Budding does not immediately kill the host cell but --

may eventually kill it

112

Some viruses are capable of alternating between -- and -- forms

latent and active

113

infection caused by specific -- (such as cold sores) are notorious for alternating between active and lateen forms

herpes viruses

114

-- was the first retrovirus discovered

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

115

process of converting viral RNA backward to DNA

reverse transcription

116

reverse transcription is achieved by

reverse transcriptase

117

Animals are unique because the embryos go through a -- stage (no other kingdom)

blastula

118

plants use -- to respond to sunlight

auxins

119

-- are believed to be the first eukaryotes

protists

120

methane generators

methanogens

121

salt lovers

halophiles

122

DNA viruses that infect bacteria

bacteriophages

123

When viruses infect new bacterial hosts, delivering viral genome and some bacterial genes

transduction