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Flashcards in Sexual Reproduction Deck (44):
1

where sperm is produced

seminiferous tubules

2

where sperm mature and become fully motile

epididymis

3

carries sperm to urethra

vas deferens

4

provide secretions to nurture and aid sperm during fertilization

seminal vesicles and prostate gland

5

carries sperm to the outside

penis

6

sperm and secretions move to base of penis to form semen

emission

7

when muscles at the base of the penis contract to force semen out of the urethra

ejaculation

8

composition of semen

5% sperm, 70% seminal fluid, 25% prostate fluid

9

nurture developing spermatids

sertoli cells

10

the head of the sperm which control enzymes for "entering" the egg

acrosome

11

produce estrogen and progesterone and eggs

ovaries

12

eggs and surrounding cells

follicles

13

the process whereby a mature follicle erupts from the ovary and the ovum is released towards one oviduct

ovulation

14

consists of the remaining follicle cells that will produce estrogen and progesterone for up to 2 weeks after ovulation

corpus luteum

15

with implantation, -- secrete human chronic gonadotropin, progesterone, and estrogen

cells covering blastocyst

16

sloughing of of uterine lining (endometrium)

menstruation

17

follicle cells that nurture developing embryo and create first barrier for sperm to reach egg

cumulus

18

interacts with acrosome of sperm, prevents implantation of embryo in oviduct

zona pellucida

19

sperm develops the ability to enter the egg, -- enzymes digest the outer layers of the zona pellucida

acrosomal reaction, acrosomal

20

-- are stimulated by LH to produce testosterone

theca cells

21

granulosa cells convert testosterone to estrogen via the enzyme --

aromatase

22

-- and -- stimulate the growth and maturation of granulosa cells

estrogen and FSH

23

estrogen -- the expression of LH and FSH receptors on granulosa cells and become more -- to LH and FSH

upregulates, sensitive

24

granulosa cells produce --

inhibin

25

three steps of sexual reproduction

gametogenesis, mating, fertilization

26

gametogenesis occurs in

testes and ovaries

27

fusions of sperm and egg plasma membranes trigger

blocks to polyspermy

28

external fertilization is common in -- species

aquatic

29

internal fertilization is necessary in terrestrial species and usually involves --

copulation

30

animals lay eggs in environment and their embryos develop outside the mother's body

oviparous (insects, reptiles, birds)

31

animals retain the embryo within the mother's body during its early developmental stages

viviparous (sharks and all vertebrate except crocodiles, birds, and turtles)

32

fertilized eggs are retained in the mother's body until they hatch

ovoviviparious (garter snakes and guppy)

33

What statement about human oocytes is true?

by birth, a human female infant has produced her lifetime supply of oocytes

34

Spermatogenesis and oogenesis differ in that

spermatogenesis produces many gametes with meager energy reserves, whereas oogenesis produces relatively few, well-provisioned gametes

35

Semen consists of

fructose, mucus, clotting enzymes, an active clot-dissolving enzym

36

which of the following statements about ovarian and uterine cycle are true?

falling E and P levels induce menstruation, a sudden rise in LH induces ovulation, E levels reach highest levels in the follicular phase and P reaches highest levels in the luteal phase of ovarian cycle, E is produced by follicle cells

37

If implantation occurs, blastocyst secrete --

hCG

38

contractions of muscles in the uterine wall are stimulated by

oxytocin

39

Which of contraceptive method is most likely to fail: rhythm method, birth control pills, diaphragm, vasectomy, condom?

rhythm method

40

the single celled zygote must becomes a multicellular --

embryo

41

How does cleavage in mammals from cleavage in frogs?

slower rate of cell division, formation of tight junctions, expression of the embryo's genome, early separation of cells that will not contribute to the embryo

42

Which statement about gastrulation is true?

in frogs, gastrulation begins in the vegetal pole

43

Which of the following was a conclusion from the experiments of Spemann and Mangold?

the dorsal lip of the blastopore can initiate gastrulation

44

which of the following characterizes neurulation?

the neural tube is formed from ectoderm