Difference between a CTR and a CTA?
CTR (zone) extends down to ground, CTA does not
The lower limit of a control area (CTA or TMA) can be expressed as a height, pressure alt or flight level but cannot be less than ... above the ground
Lateral limits of control zones contain those portions of airspace, which are not within control areas, containing the paths of IFR flights arriving at and departing from aerodromes to be used under IMC. Lateral limits extend to at least ... from the centre of the aerodrome/s concerned in the directions from which approaches may be made
For an aerodrome to be controlled, ICAO rules require it to have ...
a control tower
Upper airspace is class ...
VFR flights are only seperated from other VFR in class ...
What separation in class C?
IFR from IFR and VFR
VFR from IFR and traffic info in respect of other VFR
Separation in class D?
what traffic info?
IFR from IFR and traffic info on VFR
Traffic info to VFR on all other flights
What separation in class E?
IFR from IFR
all flights receive traffic info as far as possible
class E should not be used for control zones
Upper information region is above FL
Unless otherwise notified speed is restricted to 250 KT IAS below ...ft or FL... in all classes of airspace except for IFR traffic in classes ... and VFR traffic in Class ...
A, B & C
An 'R' on the end of an airway designator means?
The letter 'Y' on an airway route designator means?
For RNP 1 routes at and above FL200; all turns on the route between 30 and 90 degrees shall be made within a radius of 22.5NM
The letter 'Z' on an airway route designator means?
For RNP 1 routes at and below FL190; all turns on the route between 30 and 90 degrees shall be made within a radius of 15NM
ATS route segments defined by reference to VORs should have a change over point, limited to route segments greater than...