what are the three phases of emergency?
The Uncertainty Phase: a situation where uncertainty exists as to the safety of an aircraft or its occupants
The Alert Phase: where apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft or its occupants
The Distress Phase: there is reasonable certainty that an aircraft or its occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger or require immediate assistance
Uncertainty phase is initiated when...
no comms from an aircraft within 30 mins after time it should have been received, or from a time unsuccessful attempt to establish comms was made
alert phase initiated when... (4 triggers)
following uncertainty phase, subsequent attempts at comms or inquiries to other relevant sources have failed to reveal any news of the aircraft, or when;
An aircraft has been cleared to land and doesn’t land within 5 mins and comms have not been re-established with the aircraft, or when;
Info received that indicates that operating efficiency of the aircraft has been impaired, or
The aircraft is known to be hijacked
distress phase initiated when...(4 triggers)
after alert phase, further unsuccessful attempts to establish comms and more widespread unsuccessful inquiries point to the probability that the aircraft is in distress, or when;
Fuel on board is considered to be exhausted or insufficient for aircraft to reach safety, or when;
Information received that suggests a forced landing is likely, or when;
Info received or it is reasonably certain that the aircraft is about to make, or has made a forced landing, except if known that aircraft and occupants are safe
ELTs operate on... (2 frequencies)
121.5MHz & 406 MHz
Military distress freqeuncy is?
merchant shipping frequencies? (2)
HF 2182 KHz or 4125 KHz
Ground to air visual signals...
require medical assistance
ground signals from rescue units below...
two arrows similar to lightning sign =
we have found everyone
we have found only some people
unable to continue, returning to base
have divided into two groups, each group proceeding in direction indicated
medical supplies dropped are coloured?
food and water supplies dropped are coloured?
blankets and protective clothing dropped are coloured?
misc equipment dropped such as stoves, axes, compasses etc are coloured?
ME aircraft must carry life jackets when how far from shore?
SE aircraft must carry life jackets when operating beyond ... from shore
life rafts and flares to be carried if multi-engine aircraft are operating at a distance corresponding to ... mins at cruising speed or ...NM (whichever is less) away from land.
For single engine aircraft this is reduced to ... mins or ...NM (whichever is less)