Flashcards in DL: Small Ruminant Stranguria Deck (27)
What should be suspected if constipation/GIT problems reported in small ruminants
Hx taking questions for farm animals?
- feeding (what and exactly how much)
- age castrated
- living environment (kept with other animals?)
- worming and vax
> medical Hx
- worming vax
- previous episodes of similar or different dz
- medical Tx given for current problem
> current problems
- how long for / last seen normal?
- define uncomfortable
- any other signs?
- DUDE BAR
What does lambivac protect against?
- Clostridium perfringens type C and D
What causes pulpy kidney?
Clostridium perfringens type D
Do pet goats and sheep need concentrates?
No just grass
How do small ruminants display colic?
Stretched / parked out standing
- sometimes bloat
What can be felt on digital rectal exam of small ruminants?
- shouldn't be able to feel urethra (may feel pulsing or structure or uroliths)
- check feaces
Normal TPR for small ruminants
- 80-100 bpm
- 10-20 rpm
- 37.2-39.5 temp
- horse 38.5
Can you do cystocentesis on a small ruminant?
Alpaca and goats - very fragile bladder likely to rupture DO NOT ATTEMPT
- if referral not an option then must explain risks to owner
Can you catheterise male pigs/goat/sheep/alpaca ?
No d/t sigmoid flexure
What is vagal indigestion - causes?
> look up vagal a indigestion
Should the prepuce be dry or wet?
Should be moist
What may cause tachycardia, tachypnoea in small ruminants
Ddx for urinary obstruction in small ruminants
- pizzle rot (corynebacterium renale)
Can you see metal on ultrasound?
- black fluid
- White gas with shadow
How should the normal bladder appear on ultrasound?
Should have crenated edges and sitting like a slumped sack
- if rounded and tight walled this is abnormal and voiding should have been initiated earlier
How do calcium carbonate stones appear on rads?
Radiopaque ball bearings
How does early castration affect the urinary tract
- poor development of urethra -> thin and narrow
- ^ risk of persistent frenulum
How does acidosis cause hyperkalaemia?
- K+ stored in cells
- if acidotic H+ moved in to cells to be converted by carbonic anhydrase to CO2 and H2O using bicarbonate
- as H+ moved into cells K+ moved out to balance charges
Is renal disease common in large animals?
Very very very very rare
- usually pre, maybe post
Is it easy to extrude farm animal penis?
What is the most common type of uroliths in large animals? Cause?
> struvite (Mg, Ph)
- can be calcium carbonate/phosphate in hard water areas
(Combines with protein in the urine)
PDF for uroliths in farm animals?
- feedlot animals being fattened (lambs and steers)
- early castration (testosterone makes urethral big)
- ^ protein diet (eg. Alfalfa abroard)
- dehydration (frozen water or sick animals)
> surgical if obstruction (not medical)
- salvage (perineal urethrostomy for slaughter animals, tube cystotomy for pets leave in for 2w, clamp urethra for 12hrs to test efctiveness)
- not long term solutions
Medical Tx if buying time before PTS
- not a2s (^ urine production)
- buscopan (but short acting)
- BS Abx
- fluids only once tube in place and functioning
> +- calcium gluconate, sodium bicarb, 59% dextrose and insulin for hyperkalaemia
> correcting underlying problems will sort pH out
- urine acidification (ammonium chloride v unpalatable but good for struvite, anconic salt)
Prophylaxis for urolithiasis in farm animals
- ^ fibre diet
- v protein /concentrates
- castrate older
- water supply (rain eat or water softener)
- DCAB acidifying diet (used for cattle ph change)