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Flashcards in Incontinence Deck (44)
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Causes of incontinene in dogs and cats? Which species is more commonly affected?

> dogs esp female more common
> juvenile
- ureteral ectopia
- congenital USMI
- genitourinary dysplasia
- bladder hypoplasia
- intersex
- pervious urachus
- neuro dz
> adult
- prostatic dz
- neuro dz
- urogenital neoplasia
- fistulae
- bladder aotny
- cystitis
- detrusor instability
- pelvic masses


More common cause of incontinence in dogs?

> USMI (urinary sphincter mechanism incontince)
- most common neutered bitch but also in entire females and castrated makes
- most commonly acquired after neutering
- can be congenital with anatomical defects eg. Intersex, ectopic ureters
- leakage during recumbency
- severity of leakage variable (hard to monitor Tx efficacy)


Which Breeds most commonly affected by USMI? What is the aetiology

Large/medium dogs
- shorter urethral length pdf
- overweight
- docked
> multifactorial aetiology not fully understood


Risk fctors for USMI

- bitch
- breed (Irish setter, Doberman, Rottweiler, English sheepdog)
- docked
- overweight
- post neutering (within 3 years if it's going to happen)
> cause unclear, used to think adhesions form but this has been disproven, oestrogen and progesterone levels and potential gonadotrophins


Diagnosis of USMI

- PE unremarkable
- Dx based on Hx, CS, investigtion, response to trial tx, r/o other causes
- caudally positioned bladder neck is supportive but NOT diagnostic


Is USMI common in make dogs?

- no
- but more common in neutered males


Is USMI in males similar to female form?

- similar to bitch (leak when recumbemt)
- intrapelvic bladder neck and castration risk factors
- responds to medical and surgical tx less well than the bitch


What is ureteral ectopia?

Ureters bypass bladder into urethra or vagina
- usually congenital (can be acquired)
- more common in females, dogs
- probably inherited or familial (golden retriever PDF )
- openings may be single, double or elongated (troughs)
- in dogs likely intramural ectopic ureter (joins at correct place but only opens more caudally)
- in cats likely extramural ectopic ureter


Clinical signs of ureteral ectopia?

- constant dribble
- severe scalding
- often UTIs
- may have concomitant USMI
- may have other abnormalities eg. Hydroneohrosis, hydroureter, uterocoeles


What is genitourinary dysplasia and which animals is it common in?

- rare cause of incontinence in cats (but more common than ectopic ureters cats than dogs)
- on rads no urethra seen, really wide elongated bladder straight out to vagina (very easy to catheterise!)


How may Intersexuality cause incontinence? Tx?

- urine refluxing into another structure
- concominant SMI possible
- tx dependent on underlying defect, usually surgical


What is Bladder hypoplasia commonly seen with? Px?

- usully w/ other congenital defects ef. bilateral ectopic ureters
- dx radiographically
- poorly compliant bladder -> overflow, guarded px


Cause of Bladder atony ? Tx and Px?

- 2* to bladder distantion
- tight junctions in bladder wall disrupted -> atonic bladder difficult to manage


Previous urachus

- more common farm species
- rare smallies


Is imaging useful in incontinence investigation?

Yes - if normal anatomy seen, suggests functional cause


Outline the order of further investigation for incontinence

- diagnostic imaging
- plain rads (RLR, VD)
- IVU (IV urography)
- retrograde study
- ultrasound
- others


Most useful study?

Retrograde vagino urethro cysto gram


What is ultrasound useful for?

- confirming ureteral emptying into bladder
- additional information on kidneys bladder and prostate


Uses of endoscopy

> visualising
- ectopic ureters
- lesions of the bladder neck/urethra that can cause incontinence
- subjective evaluatino of urethral tone
> facilitates biopsy
> laser sx for intramural ectopic ureters
- no info on urethropelvic relatinoships
> not widely available UK


Tx urinary incontince

- without dx Tx is trial and symptomatic
- ensure owners understand what you're doing , not necessarily bad


Medical Tx incontinence?

> Tx UTI
- base on culture and sensitivity
- confirm eradication
> Tx underlying systemic dz
- PUPD may exaggerate or precipitate condition
> diet if obese
> specific mess depend on dx


Which nerves supply the bladder and LLUT?

> hypogastric n (symp)
- L1-4
- facilitates bladder filling
- b fibres bladder, a fibres neck
> pudendal n. (Somatic)
- S1-S3
> pelvic n. (Parasympathetic)
- S1-3


Give 4 drug options for Tx incontinence LOOK UP TABLE

> phenylpropanolamine
- best but more expensive
- less effective in males
> ephedrine hydrochloride
> oestrol
> testosterone
- prostatic hyperplasia side effect etc.


Which drugs are licenced?

- phenylopropanolamine (propalin, Vetoquinol)
- ephidrine hydrochloride (Enurace 50, Janssen)
- Oestriol (Incurin, Intervet)
- Testeosterone (Durateston, Intervet)


Side effects of phenylpropanolamine

- irritability
- hypertension
- anorexia


How does the risk of adverse effects with oestriol compare to phenylpropanolamine?

- lower


how can medical tx be escalated before resorting to surgery?

> off lic increase dose of PPA (phenylopropanilamine)
- watch for side effects
- combine with oestriol tx
> Imipramine
- a adrenergic
- improves bladder storage
- anecdotally helps dogs unresponsive to PPA
> GnRH analogues
-> v FSH and LH
- successful


Further medical options

- see above


When is surgical Tx indicated?

Specific diagnosis has to be made
- not responsive to medical Tx


Which abnormalities has surgery been described for?

- ureteral ectopia
- genitourinary dysplasia
- congenital Genito-urinary malformation
- masses
- prostatic dz