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Flashcards in CS: Urolithiasis Deck (9)
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Are rate stones radiopaque?

Not really


Tx urate stones

- dietary protein restriction
- allopurinol (NB: pdf xanthine uroliths)
- alkalinise urine (7.1-7.7) sodium bicarb/pottasium citrate
- ^ water intake


Monitoring when resolving urate stones?

- rads/ultrasound q 4w
- serial biochem (if urea v then hows owners are sticking to diet)
- urinalysis for pH and crystals??
- avoid catheterisation (pdf UTI)


Which type of stones are associated with UTIs and why?

- Struvite (mg and ph)
- UTI bacteria ^ pH of urine
- alkali urine pdf struvite
> in cats often sterile
- can be dissolved in 2w
- preventative tx more useful in these cases (diets etc.)


Best tx struvite stones?

> medical
- ABx most important!!! Tx UTI! to 1 month after resolution
- also responds well to diet changes
- monitor for calcium oxalate crystals as may form years dow n the line
- ^ water or Na consumption
- v protein , Mg and Ph


How do struvite stones appear radiographically?

- radiopaque
- big >1cm (always suspect struvite)
- pyramidal
- smooth edges


Monitoring for struvite stone resolution? Prevention?

- In dogs no indication for preventative diet (cats more reason to)
- re-radiograph at 1 month
- continue diet for 1 month after radiographic resolution of stones then no need to remain on it
- prevent UTIs


Are stones commonly missed at surgery?

yes 20% - warn patient before surgery!


Outline the genetics behind dalmatians having lack of uric acid enzyme transporter

- ALL dalmations homozygous recessive for the trait causing a problem
- 3 Heterozygotes recently imported after being backcrossed with a pointer several generations ago
- KC people being idiots about this saying not a real dalmatian but have been forced to accept it