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1

Can you tell me how you've advised a client on the foundation selection?

Soil type
Cost/Time
Type of structure
Buildaibility (access, proximity, site conditions)

2

What is piling?

Where RC concrete is in the ground to take the load of the structure
Typically reinforced
Used on large buildings with heavy load and subsoil is not able to take the load

3

What are the advantages of CFA piling?

Low levels of noise and vibration
High load bearing
Suitable for a wide range of ground conditions

4

What is the difference between displacement and replacement piling?

Displacement driven into the ground without excavation
Replacement is CFA piling

5

What is a typical ground floor slab build up?

Finish
Screed
DPM
Insulation

Slab
Sand/Blinding
DPM below slab`

6

What is included within one of your projects substructure?

On Tolworth Phase 1 we had a piled substructure which included:
- 600 dia piles
- Pile Caps
- 300mm RC ground bearing slab

7

When would you advise to use a piled foundation?

High rise building
High load bearing
Subsoil cannot hold weight of structure

8

Explain activities involved when piling?

Measure in line with Section 1 of NRM1

Forming pile mat
Mobilisation/moving of pile rig
Pouring insitu RC piles
Cutting top of piles
Pile Caps
Pile testing
Pile casings if applicable

9

Why would you use rotary bored piles instead of CFA?

Rotary bored piles
Larger diameter than CFA
Support greater loads
Penetrate ground too hard to CFA
Pile can be reinforced entire length because the rotary bored technique enables the entire cage to be added as it can be dropped prior to concrete pour

10

What was the cost difference per pile for RTB and CFA?

Dependant on dimensions and rebar density
RTB £25k/pile (>900 dia, 60m deep) CFA £4k/pile (700 dia, 30m deep), CFA £2.5k/pile (600mm dia, upto 26m long)

11

How do piles work in regards to transferring loads?

End bearing will transfer load to strata
Friction will rely on the strength of the soil to be able to create friction between piles to prevent movement and transfer load

12

Why would you use CFA piles instead of Bored?

Better soil conditions
Cost
Quicker than Bored (concrete done as excavating)

13

How would you measure a Steel Frame?

Measure steel in tonnage
Intumisant paint
Accessories and fixings could be included
Plates and holding down bolts cast into foundation

Each steel member measured in tonnage

14

What are the main forms of legislation in the industry?

Construction Act (HGCRA1998)
Local Economic and Democracy Act
HASAWA
CDM Regulations
Building Regulations
Fire Regulations
Party Wall Act
Proceeds of Crime Act Anti Bribery Act

15

What are the CDM Regulations?

The Construction (Design & Management) Regulations (CDM 2015) are the main set of regulations for managing the health, safety and welfare of construction projects.

Pre-construction activities to ensure works are being carried out safely

16

What are the Building Regulations?

List of approved documents ( A - R) which building work must be complied to :
Part A- Structure
Part B- Fire
Part Q- Security of Dwellings

17

What are the Fire Regulations?

Regulations that specify to legislation and laws relating to fire as set out in Part B of the Building Regs

18

What is your role in relation to the CDM Regs?

Due to my input in reviewing drawings and having an influence on design I am aware that I am seen as to having a role as a designer in relation to CDM Regs.

19

Name different types of planning consent types

Outline
Full
Non material amendments

20

What do the GLA state regarding units per core?

GLA this should not exceed 8 residential units per core.

21

How would you build a rate for a frame?

C40/50/60 concrete to: - Ground Bearing Slab - Suspended Slabs
- Columns
- Beams
- Transfer beams/slabs
- Beams
- Walls
Reinforcement (to S.E recommendation)Formwork to soffits
Formwork to edges

22

What is a cold roof and its + & -

Waterproof layer
RC
Void for ventilation
Insulation


Better for heavy plant on roof
Requires void to avoid damp / condensation
Difficult to construct

23

What is a warm roof and its + & -

Waterproof layer
Insulation
Vapour Control
RC

Typically better for warmth and waterproofing
Not great for greater loads on roof

24

Why are transfer slabs required?

To help with load bearing- for example on my project there were columns on the GF that were required to be moved and the load from above had to be transferred via a transfer slab into the columns

25

What are the advantages of using precast concrete frame?

Produced in factory-controlled conditions

Eliminates curing times and formwork

Can be assembled in cold weather and generally by semi-skilled labour

26

What are the disadvantages of using precast concrete frame?

Less flexible in design terms
Longer lead times

27

What factors should be considered when choosing between a frame type?

Fire proofing requirements
Acoustic requirements
Time
Site logistics (e.g. delivery of materials to site, on/off site storage, plant restrictions)
Cost
Requirements for thermal mass for a low energy design solution
Repetitiveness

28

In your documents you have highlighted the advantages/ disadvantages of Steel v Concrete. Could you talk me through some of these?

Steel

Advantages:-
Quicker to construct-
Recyclable-
Strong tensile strength
Lighter than concrete

Disadvantages-
More volatile pricing
- Low compression strength
- Low sound/fire resistance
- Requires soundproofing

Concrete

Advantages

- High compression strength
- Good noise resistance
- Good fire protection
- Low maitenance

Disadvantages

-Slower to construct
- Need for reinforcement
- High embodied carbon-
- Not as square and flat as steel

29

Are you aware of any renewable technology techniques?

London 0% Carbon
Local labour
Photo voltaic panels
Blue / Green Roof
Presence detectors
ASHP
GSHP

30

Difference between steel / concrete with regard to life cycle costing?

Concrete

Cheaper / Easier to repair
More flexible

Steel
Difficult to repair as done in large spans
Expensive