Flashcards in Dr. Lee's Alzheimer's and Antipsychotic lecture Deck (68)
What is the term for a drop in cognitive function from a prior level?
mild cognitive impairment
What is mild cognitive impairment plus a loss in the ability to care for oneself?
What is required to make the diagnosis of dementia?
A detailed history about prior levels of function.
Is MCI treated with any medication? Dementia?
No and yes
What rank in cause of death is Alzheimer's?
6th in the USA
What gene increases the risk of Alzheimer's?
Apolipoprotein E (APOE). Varient E4 increases the risk. A single copy increases risk 3-fold, homozygous e4 increases risk 8-12 fold.
What other family history increases the risk of Alzheimer's?
Cardiovascular disease history in the family
What lifestyles/disease states increase the risk of Alzheimer's?
Cardiovascular disease in middle age
What increases cognitive reserve to stave off dementia?
What maintains cognitive reserve?
What is the most common form of dementia (60-80%)?
In normal aging, neurons are...
In normal aging, brain mass is...
In normal aging, synaptic connections are...
lost. this is shown by processing speed decrease and abstract concept linkage decrease.
How are storage of memories affected by normal aging?
Takes longer to develop memories
How are retrieval of memories affected by normal aging?
Preserved, but retrieval process is slower.
How is thinking and reasoning affected by normal aging?
What part of the brain is affected early in Alzheimers compared to normal aging?
The hippocampus (memory)
What other area of the brain are different in Alzheimer's compared to normal aging?
- Language is affected
- The ventricles start to enlarge
- As more cells die, the sulci get wider
What areas of the brain are rich in cholinergic neurons?
Reasoning and understanding
Disinhibition and behavioral problems
What histology will you see in Alzheimer's Disease?
Amyloid beta peptide insoluble plagues accumulated on the outside of cells.
What protein is formed with B-secretase and y-secretase?
What protein is formed from alpha-secretase and y-secretase?
Is amyloid-beta42 or beta-amyloid40 more plaque-forming?
Amyloid-beta 42 is more plaque-forming, while 40 is more soluble.
What is the original protein that is cut to form both amyloid-beta 42 and beta-amyloid 40?
APP - amyloid precursor protein
What stabilizes microtubules inside a neuron?
Hyperphosphorylated tau protein.
What is the cholinergic hypothesis for Alzheimer's?
That the loss of cholinergic neurons is responsible for AD. This is now considered a downstream event (aka something is killing these neurons, causing AD).
What is the amyloid-beta hypothesis? What is wrong with this hypothesis?
A-beta is the initial pathology leading to inflammation and neuronal death. However, almost all adults have A-beta, and A-beta load does not correlate with AD symptoms.
What is Tau Hypothesis?
Tau-hyperphosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles is the single common pathway that leads to PD. Tau hypothesis is gaining ground as the predominant hypothesis.