Flashcards in Dr. Turner- Immune Mechanisms in Healing Deck (56)
which arm of the immune system generally kills that pathogen? Which one controls the infection
innate= controls until the adaptive can take over
Adaptive = kills the pathogen directly
A pathogen is found intracellularlly in the cytoplasm what kind of cells will we see activated
cytotoxic t cells
natural killer cells
a pathogen is found intracellularly in a macrophage. what kind of protective immunity will there be
t cell dependent macrophage activation (Requires IF-Gamma)
what kind protictive immunity cells will we see if extracellular pathogens are present
what kind of immmunity will we see if there is an infective agent in endothelial cells
antibodies, especially IgA
Where do extracellular bacterial pathogens replicate
outside of the host cells
what are 2 mechanisms of pathogenicity do to to the bacteria directly
inflammation - pus forms
do gram negative or gram positive secerete LPS
LPS is an _____toxin that is secreted by gram ___ bacteria
endotoxin , gram negative
give an example of 2 cytotoxic toxins
What exactly does a superantigen do
it can not specifcally activate multiple t cells . It forces the t cell and MHC II to bridge together causing polyclonal activation of t cells.
How is a superantigen related to a cytokine storm
superantigens nonspecifically activate t cells. When the t cells are active they release proinflammatory cytokines like TNF, IL-6 and IL-1
List the cytokines that would be involved in a cytokine storm, also what are some of the effects
cytokines involved TNF, IL-6 and IL-1.
Effects: hypotension, blood vessel dilation , fever
Describe what innate immunity against extracellular pathogens looks like
1. complement is activated
2. phagocytosis occurs
recognition occurs due to PAMPS.
describe what adaptive immunity looks like against extracellular pathogens
When we are talking about adaptive immunity for extracellular bacteria, think about ANTIBODIES - IgA (epithelial / gut), and IgG (Blood).
The antibodies help to neutralize toxins and promote phagocytosis
What does neutralization refer to
when the antibody binds to either the antigen or virus and inhibits its function
T/F antibodies can bind to the pathogen and the toxin
What is another word for enhancing phagocytosis
How are antibodies related to opsinization
The antibody binds to the pathogen. The fc region of the antibody can bind to the fc region on the macrophage. . So it basically delivers it to get eaten
List 4 ways that pathogens can evade the immune system
1. inhibit compliment
2. catalase postive , convert hydrogen peroxide to h20 and oxygen
3. resistance to phagocytosis, by having a capsule
4. antigenic variation
list a bacteria that is able to evade phagocytosis and how do they do it
pneumococcus does it by having a capsule .
Changing out surface proteins to evade the host immune response is known as
What is antigenic shift
when 2 or more viruses combine and cause a new virus
What are the innate mechanisms for intracellular bacteria?
Remember these replicate inside the host. The cells include NK cells that produce inf-gamma (INF-Gamma helps the macrophages get charged up) and phagocytes that produce IL-12
TH1 releases what macrophage and what is its function
it secretes IFN-gamma. The function is to activate macrophages to start killin
What cytokines does TH2 secrete?
IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, 1L-10 IL-13
What is the function of TH2
it is involved in alternative macrophage activation .
Which kind of t cell is involved in wound repair
What is the major function of IL-4
It helps TH0 differentiate into TH 2