Dr. Turner- Immune Mechanisms in Healing Flashcards Preview

FHDM Unit 1: Wound Healing > Dr. Turner- Immune Mechanisms in Healing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dr. Turner- Immune Mechanisms in Healing Deck (56)
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1

which arm of the immune system generally kills that pathogen? Which one controls the infection

innate= controls until the adaptive can take over

Adaptive = kills the pathogen directly

2

A pathogen is found intracellularlly in the cytoplasm what kind of cells will we see activated

cytotoxic t cells
natural killer cells

3

a pathogen is found intracellularly in a macrophage. what kind of protective immunity will there be

t cell dependent macrophage activation (Requires IF-Gamma)

4

what kind protictive immunity cells will we see if extracellular pathogens are present

antibodies

5

what kind of immmunity will we see if there is an infective agent in endothelial cells

antibodies, especially IgA

6

Where do extracellular bacterial pathogens replicate

outside of the host cells

7

what are 2 mechanisms of pathogenicity do to to the bacteria directly

inflammation - pus forms
septic shock

8

do gram negative or gram positive secerete LPS

Gram negative

9

LPS is an _____toxin that is secreted by gram ___ bacteria

endotoxin , gram negative

10

give an example of 2 cytotoxic toxins

enterotoxins
neurotoxins

11

What exactly does a superantigen do

it can not specifcally activate multiple t cells . It forces the t cell and MHC II to bridge together causing polyclonal activation of t cells.

12

How is a superantigen related to a cytokine storm

superantigens nonspecifically activate t cells. When the t cells are active they release proinflammatory cytokines like TNF, IL-6 and IL-1

13

List the cytokines that would be involved in a cytokine storm, also what are some of the effects

cytokines involved TNF, IL-6 and IL-1.

Effects: hypotension, blood vessel dilation , fever

14

Describe what innate immunity against extracellular pathogens looks like

1. complement is activated

2. phagocytosis occurs

recognition occurs due to PAMPS.

15

describe what adaptive immunity looks like against extracellular pathogens

When we are talking about adaptive immunity for extracellular bacteria, think about ANTIBODIES - IgA (epithelial / gut), and IgG (Blood).

The antibodies help to neutralize toxins and promote phagocytosis

16

What does neutralization refer to

when the antibody binds to either the antigen or virus and inhibits its function

17

T/F antibodies can bind to the pathogen and the toxin

true!

18

What is another word for enhancing phagocytosis

opsonization

19

How are antibodies related to opsinization

The antibody binds to the pathogen. The fc region of the antibody can bind to the fc region on the macrophage. . So it basically delivers it to get eaten

20

List 4 ways that pathogens can evade the immune system

1. inhibit compliment
2. catalase postive , convert hydrogen peroxide to h20 and oxygen

3. resistance to phagocytosis, by having a capsule
4. antigenic variation

21

list a bacteria that is able to evade phagocytosis and how do they do it

pneumococcus does it by having a capsule .

22

Changing out surface proteins to evade the host immune response is known as

antigenic variation

23

What is antigenic shift

when 2 or more viruses combine and cause a new virus

24

What are the innate mechanisms for intracellular bacteria?

Remember these replicate inside the host. The cells include NK cells that produce inf-gamma (INF-Gamma helps the macrophages get charged up) and phagocytes that produce IL-12

25

TH1 releases what macrophage and what is its function

it secretes IFN-gamma. The function is to activate macrophages to start killin

26

What cytokines does TH2 secrete?

IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, 1L-10 IL-13

27

What is the function of TH2

it is involved in alternative macrophage activation .

28

Which kind of t cell is involved in wound repair

TH 2

29

What is the major function of IL-4

It helps TH0 differentiate into TH 2

30

What is the major function of TH2

It helps helps to fight off parasites and worms