Which is more addictive... Morphine or Heroin?
Why is heroin more addictive than morphine?
It crosses the blood brain barrier more quickly = quicker and more effective 'high'
Which three drugs do we use to treat heroin addiction?
- Methadone maintainance (agonist of receptor)
- Buprenorphine (+ naloxone = stops potential for abuse)
- Safe controlled heroin supply (reduced chances of infection etc.)
How does opioid abuse affect analgesia?
Opioid analgesics = (e.g. morphine & codeine)
- Addicts have tolerance = need higher than clinical dose to be effective
- More likely to start abusing again if given
Which analgesic should you use to treat an opioid abuser instead?
(κ agonist & μ antagonist)= analgesia
= withdrawal effects by blocking μ & no euphoria so less likely to become addicted
What do indirecting acting sympathomimetic drugs do?
mimic activation of SNS but dont actually activate the receptors= increased dopamine in synapse
Where does Cocaine act in the synapse?
Blocks dopamine reuptake
Where does Amphetamine and Methamphetiamine act in the synapse?
Amphetamine transported into neurones = release of Dopamine
Inhibits dopamine degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO)Stimulates dopamine release
What are the two forms of cocaine?
Cocaine hydrochloride (nasal inhalation or IV administration)
Crack cocaine (insoluble! smoked = vaporises at 90 degrees) -> crosses membranes in blood more readily = free base form
How is crack cocaine produced from Cocaine hydrochloride?
Heat up cocaine hydrochloride with bicarbonate
What are the 9 Amphetamine acute side effects?
- Elevated mood
- Increase alertness
- Increased stamina
- Increased heart rate
- Raised blood pressure
What are the 6 post drug amphetamine side effects?
- Psychiatric disorders
- Sustained effects on BP
Where does Ecstasy (MDMA) act in the synapses?
Causes 5-HT release
Inhibits 5-HT reuptake
Why do we combine MDMA with Prozac?
- MDMA is immediate (doesn't take weeks for effect)
- MDMA can cause neurodegeneration (blocked by prozac)
What are the 5 extra acute effects of MDMA than amphetamine?
- Perception disruption
- increases body temp
- allergic reactions
- 5-HT syndrome (massive 5-HT release = headaches & dizziness)
N.b. the rest are the same as amphetamine but NO aggression with MDMA
What are the 2 extra post drug effects of MDMA than amphetamine?
N.b. also fewer cardiovascular effects
What are the active components of cannabis sativa (cannabis leaves)?
What s the main psychoactive (CNS) constituent of cannabis?
THC = Δ 9 tetrahydrocannabinol
Which receptors does cannabis act on?
CB1 & CB2 receptors
Which receptor that cannabis acts on is responsible for the CNS effects of the drug?
What type of receptors are CB1 & CB2?
= increase K
Name an endogenous agonist of CB1 & CB2: