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Yr 2 - Pharmacology > drug abuse > Flashcards

Flashcards in drug abuse Deck (46):
1

Which is more addictive... Morphine or Heroin?

Heroin

2

Why is heroin more addictive than morphine?

It crosses the blood brain barrier more quickly = quicker and more effective 'high'

3

Which three drugs do we use to treat heroin addiction?

- Methadone maintainance (agonist of receptor)

- Buprenorphine (+ naloxone = stops potential for abuse)

- Safe controlled heroin supply (reduced chances of infection etc.)

4

How does opioid abuse affect analgesia?

Opioid analgesics = (e.g. morphine & codeine)

  • Addicts have tolerance = need higher than clinical dose to be effective
  • More likely to start abusing again if given

5

Which analgesic should you use to treat an opioid abuser instead?

Pentazocine

(κ agonist & μ antagonist)= analgesia

= withdrawal effects by blocking μ & no euphoria so less likely to become addicted

6

What do indirecting acting sympathomimetic drugs do?

mimic activation of SNS but dont actually activate the receptors= increased dopamine in synapse

7

Where does Cocaine act in the synapse?

Blocks dopamine reuptake

8

Where does Amphetamine and Methamphetiamine act in the synapse?

Amphetamine transported into neurones = release of Dopamine

Inhibits dopamine degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO)Stimulates dopamine release

9

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

10

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

11

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

12

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

13

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

14

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

15

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

16

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

DOPAMINE REUPTAKE

17

What are the two forms of cocaine?

Cocaine hydrochloride (nasal inhalation or IV administration)

Crack cocaine (insoluble! smoked = vaporises at 90 degrees) -> crosses membranes in blood more readily = free base form

18

How is crack cocaine produced from Cocaine hydrochloride?

Heat up cocaine hydrochloride with bicarbonate

19

What are the 9 Amphetamine acute side effects?

- Elevated mood

- Increase alertness

- Insomnia

- Increased stamina

- Anorexia

- Aggression

- Psychosis

- Increased heart rate

- Raised blood pressure

20

What are the 6 post drug amphetamine side effects?

- Fatigue

- Sedation

- Depression

- Dysphoria

- Psychiatric disorders

- Sustained effects on BP

21

Where does Ecstasy (MDMA) act in the synapses?

Causes 5-HT release

Inhibits 5-HT reuptake

22

Why do we combine MDMA with Prozac?

  • MDMA is immediate (doesn't take weeks for effect)
  • MDMA can cause neurodegeneration (blocked by prozac)

23

What are the 5 extra acute effects of MDMA than amphetamine?

- Perception disruption

- increases body temp

- thirst

- allergic reactions

- 5-HT syndrome (massive 5-HT release = headaches & dizziness)

N.b. the rest are the same as amphetamine but NO aggression with MDMA

24

What are the 2 extra post drug effects of MDMA than amphetamine?

- Anxiety

- Depression

 

N.b. also fewer cardiovascular effects

25

What are the active components of cannabis sativa (cannabis leaves)?

Lipid-soluble cannabinoids

26

What s the main psychoactive (CNS) constituent of cannabis?

THC = Δ 9 tetrahydrocannabinol

27

Which receptors does cannabis act on?

CB1 & CB2 receptors

28

Which receptor that cannabis acts on is responsible for the CNS effects of the drug?

CB1

29

What type of receptors are CB1 & CB2?

GPCR (Gi/o)

= increase K

Decrease Ca

Decrease cAMP

30

Name an endogenous agonist of CB1 & CB2:

Anandamide

31

List the 8 acute effects of cannabis:

- Sedation

- Feeling unwell

- Perceptual change e.g. time

- lowered temperature

- increased heart rate

- anti-emetic (stops feeling sick)

- Appetite stimulation

- Analgesia

32

Why is cannabis not very addictive?

No reported withdrawal syndrome (no severe effects)

33

If cannabis is not addictive then why do some people keep taking it (2)??

- physiological addiction (want the feel good experience again)

- A-motivational syndrome (less motivated when taking it = find it more difficult to change their behaviour)

34

What is the most highly expressed GPCR in the brain?

CB1

n.b. we don't understand exactly what it does

35

Can long term cannabis use cause irreversible cognitive decline?

- cognitive decline while under influence & some if smoked for long periods of time (irreversible)

Not absolute proof though

36

Can cannabis use cause schizophrenia?

- Stronger cannabis (skunk) but incidence of schizophrenia not increased at same rate as strength of cannabis

- may be link that those more likely to develop schizophrenia are also more likely to take cannabis

37

Name a CB1 receptor antagonist:

Rimonabant

38

What were the problems with the CB1 receptor antagonist Rimonabant?

Induced depression and other psychological disturbances = not used clinically

39

Which possible uses was rimonabant clinically trialled for?

Anti-obesity

Anti-smoking

(animal studies decreased ethanol consumption & heroin and cocaine relapse)

40

How many groups of Hallucinogens are there?

two

41

Name two group 1 hallucinogens:

- LSD (Lysergic acid diethyl amide)

- Psilocybin

42

What type of drugs are group 1 hallucinogens?

5-HT2A receptor agonists

43

Name two group 2 hallucinogens:

- PCP = phencyclidine/ 'angel dust'

- Ketamine (anaesthetic for children and animals)

44

What type of drugs are group 2 hallucinogens?

NMDA receptor antagonists

45

What are the 6 acute effects of hallucinogens?

- altered sensations

- visual distrubances

- Euphoria

- Psychosis

- Panic

- Flashbacks

46

What are the 3 main withdrawal symptoms?

- Panic attacks

- Flashbacks

- Psychiatric disturbances