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Yr 2 - Pharmacology > Treatment of CNS disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Treatment of CNS disorders Deck (203)
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1

Which channels are opened when a neurotransmitter binds on the post synaptic membrane in excitatory neurones?

And what does this cause?

Na in K out= depolarisation of the membrane

2

Which channels are opened when a neurotransmitter binds on the post synaptic membrane in inhibitory neurones?

And what does this cause?

Cl in = hyper polarisation of the membrane

3

Give an example of a glial cell:

Astrocyte

4

How do glial cells modulate the shape of post-synaptic response?

Remove the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft

5

Compare the following features of the Nervous system and Endocrine:

Mediator molecules

Cells affected

Time of onset of action

Duration of action

6

What criteria must a chemical meet before it can be called a neurotransmitter? (3)

Must be synthesised and stored within a pre-synaptic neurone (neurone must contain synthesising enzyme)

Stimulation causes release of the chemical from the nerve terminal (depolarisation)

Must cause the same effect as nerve stimulation on the postsynaptic neurone when applied directly onto the neurone

7

How many neuroactive substances can be found in the CNS?

Approx. 40

8

What type of channels are inotropic receptors?

Ligand-gated ion channels

9

What type of channels are metabotropic receptors?

GPCRs

10

List the (7) major CNS transmitters:

Glutamate

GABA

Acetylcholine

Monoamines (Noradrenaline, Dopamine & Serotonin)

Histamine

Opioids

Nitric Oxide (synthesised on demand & easily crosses the phospholipid bilayer -> its release is not Ca dependant but its synthesis is!)

11

What causes a  neurotransmitter to have a dual response?

It acts on both Ionotropic receptors (faster inital response) AND metabotropic receptors (slower inital response because it takes a while for the second messenger to be synthesised)

12

What do neuromodulators do?

They alter the strength of response

13

What do neurotrophic factors do?

Influences neuronal differentiation and proliferation

 (most do this by acting on Tyrosine kinase receptors)

14

What are the (4) different targets for drug action?

Ion channels

Receptors

Enzymes

Transporter proteins

15

Name an excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS:

Glutamate

16

Name an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS:

GABA

17

Which drug targets transmitter synthesis in the CNS?And what is the clinical application of this drug?

L- Dopa

Parkinson's disease

18

Which drug targets transmitter storage in the CNS?And what is the clinical application of this drug?

Reserpine

Hypertension

19

Which 2 drugs targets transmitter release in the CNS? And what is the clinical application of this drug?

Amphetamine 

Na & Ca channel blockers

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivitiy disorder (ADHD)

20

Name 2 receptor agonists in the CNS?

And what is the clinical application of this drug?

Morphine (analgesia)

Buspirone (Anxiety)

21

Name 2 receptor antagonists in the CNS?

And what is the clinical application of this drug?

Cloazapine (antipsycotic)

Memantine (alzheimers)

22

Which 2 drug target reuptake in the CNS?

And what is the clinical application of this drug?

Cocaine (stimulant)

Fluoxetine (depression)

23

Which 2 drugs target degradation in the CNS?

And what is the clinical application of this drug?

Moclobemide (depression)

Donepezil (alzheimers)

24

Which drug targets intracellular signalling in the CNS?And what is the clinical application of this drug?

Lithium 

Bipolar disorder

25

Which drug targets nerve growth in the CNS?

And what is the clinical application of this drug?

Myotrophin 

Motor neurone disease

26

Why is it not a good idea to completely 'knock out' a neurotransmitter?

Give an example:

Bad side effects -> widely spread

e.g. Completely knock out glutamate = coma

27

Name 2 examples of drugs that target Glutamate:

(include their clinical use) 

Ketamine = NMDA channel blocker (one of the inotropic receptors of Glutamate) => dissociative anaesthetic

Memantine = NMDA receptor antagonist => cognitive enhancer (in alzheimers)

28

What may drugs that target glutamate be used to treat? (4)

Learning and memory

Schizophrenia

Mood disorders

Excitotoxicity

29

Name the key 2 examples of drugs that target GABA: What are their clinical uses?

Benzodiazepines: Sedative hypnotic

Barbituates: Sedative hypnotic 

Others:

Vigabatrine: GABA transaminase inhibitor = anti-epileptic

Alphaxalone: steroid general anaesthetic

Baclophen: GABA B angonist = spascticity

GHB: drug of abuse

30

In which (3) illnesses are GABA B recreptors for GABA targetted?

Epilepsy

Anaesthesia

Cerebral Palsy