Drug Classifications P2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Drug Classifications P2 Deck (64):
1

Desired Effect of Antiinflammatory Agents

Reduce inflammation

2

Examples of Antiinflammatory Agents (NSAIDs)

1) ibuprofen (ex. Advil, Motrin)

2) naproxen (ex. Naprosyn)

3) celecoxib (ex. Celebrex)

4) indomethacin (ex. Indocin)

3

Examples of Antiinflammatory Agents (SAIDs)

1) dexamethasone (ex. Decadron)

2) prednisone (ex. Cortisone)

3) methylprednisolone (ex. Medrol, Depo-Medrol)

4) montelukast sodium (ex. Singulair)

5) fluticasone propionate (ex. Flonase)

6) mometasone (ex. Nasonex)

4

Examples of Antiinflammatory Agents (Inhalers)

1) flunisolide (ex. AeroBid)

2) triamcinolone (ex. Azmacort)

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Indications for Use of Antiinflammatory Agents

Treat arthritis and other inflammatory disorders, including asthma and allergic rhinitis

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Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antiinflammatory Agents

- GI upset

- GI bleeding

- hepatitis

- drowsiness

- tinnitus

- irregular heart rate

- kidney disorders

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Desired Effect of Antimigraine Agents

Alter circulation to the brain

8

Examples of Antimigraine Agents

1) topiramate (ex. Topamax)

2) sumatriptan (ex. Imitrex)

3) zolmitriptan (ex. Zomig)

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Indications for Use of Antimigraine Agents

Treatment or prevention of migraine headaches

10

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antimigraine Agents

- confusion

- psychomotor slowing

- difficulty concentrating

- memory problems

- rare but serious cardiac events

11

Desired Effects of Antineoplastics

Inhibit development of and destroy cancerous cells

12

Examples of Antineoplastics

1) hydroxyurea (ex. Hydrea)

2) cyclophosphamide (ex. Cytoxan)

3) chlorambucil (ex. Leukeran)

4) raloxifene (ex. Evista)

13

Indications for Use of Antineoplastics

Cancer chemotherapy and/or prevention

14

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antineoplastics

- nausea

- vomiting

- bone marrow depression

- aplastic anemia

- hair loss

- GI ulcers

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Desired Effect of Antipsychotics

Alter chemical actions in the brain

16

Examples of Antipsychotics

1) quetiapine (ex. Seroquel)

2) risperidone (ex. Risperdal)

3) aripiprazole (ex. Abilify)

4) olanzapine (ex. Zyprexa)

5) chlorpromazine (ex. Thorazine)

6) haloperidol (ex. Haldol)

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Indications for Use of Antipsychotics

Treat the symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

18

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antipsychotics

- GI distress

- hypotension

- electrocardiographic (ECG) changes

- vertigo

- sedation

- headache

- photosensitivity

19

Desired Effect of Antipruritics

Relieve itching

20

Examples of Antipruritics

1) calamine lotion

2) hydrocortisone ointment

3) diphenhydramine (ex. Benadryl)

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Indications for Use of Antipruritics

Treat allergies or topical exposures that cause itching

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Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antipruritics

* Topical agents have no side effects *

* Benadryl can cause:

- vertigo

- sedation

- nervousness

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Desired Effect of Antipyretics

Lower body temperature

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Examples of Antipyretics

1) aspirin

2) acetaminophen

3) ibuprofen

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Indications for Use of Antipyretics

Reduce fever

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Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antipyretics

- GI disturbance

- liver disease

* with aspirin, possibility of Reye’s syndrome if given during or after a viral disease *

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Desired Effects of Antispasmodics

Relieve or prevent spasms from musculoskeletal injury or inflammation

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Examples of Antispasmodics

1) methocarbamol (ex. Robaxin)

2) carisoprodol (ex. Soma)

3) cyclobenzaprine (ex. Flexeril)

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Indications for Use of Antispasmodics

Treat sports injuries

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Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antispasmodics

- CNS suppression

- drowsiness

- vertigo

31

Desired Effect of Antitussives

Inhibit the cough center

32

Examples of Antitussives (Narcotic)

1) codeine sulfate

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Examples of Antitussives (Nonnarcotic)

- dextromethorphan (ex. Robitussin DM)

34

Indications for Use of Antitussives

1) Temporarily suppress a nonproductive cough

2) Reduce the thickness of secretions

35

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antitussives

* Codeine cough suppressants cause:

- CNS depression

- constipation

36

Desired Effects of Antiviral Agents

Inhibit the growth or reduce the spread of viral cells

37

Examples of Antiviral Agents

1) interferon beta-1a (ex. Avonex)

2) sofosbuvir (ex. Sovaldi)

3) dimethyl fumarate (ex. Tecfidera)

4) acyclovir (ex. Zovirax)

5) interferon

6) valacyclovir (ex. Valtrex)

7) oseltamivir (ex. Tamiflu)

8) famciclovir (ex. Famvir)

38

Examples of Antiviral Agents (HIV medications)

1) efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir (Atripla)

2) emtricitabine and tenofovir (Truvada)

3) darunavir (Prezista)

39

Indications for Use of Antiviral Agents

Treat viral infections, including oral and genital herpes, influenza, and HIV

40

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antiviral Agents

- confusion

- diarrhea

- headache

- kidney disease

- urticaria (hives)

- vomiting

41

Desired Effect of Bronchodilators

Relax the smooth muscles of the bronchi

42

Examples of Bronchodilators

1) theophylline (ex. Theo-Dur)

2) epinephrine (ex. Adrenalin)

3) albuterol (ex. Ventolin HFA, Proventil, ProAir HFA)

4) budesonide and formoterol (ex. Symbicort)

5) isoproterenol (ex. Isuprel)

43

Indications for Use of Bronchodilators

1) Treat asthma, bronchospasm

2) Promote bronchodilation

44

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Bronchodilators

- CNS stimulation

- tremors

- tachycardia

- increased blood glucose level

- elevated BP

45

Desired Effect of Cathartics (Laxatives)

Increase peristaltic activity of the large intestine

46

Examples of Cathartics

1) magnesium hydroxide (ex. Milk of Magnesia)

2) bisacodyl (ex. Dulcolax)

3) casanthranol (ex. Peri-Colace)

47

Indications for Use of Cathartics

Increase and hasten bowel evacuation (defecation)

48

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Cathartics

- nausea

- bloating

- flatulence

- cramping

49

Desired Effects of Central Nervous System (CNS) Stimulants

Affect chemicals in the brain that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control

50

Examples of CNS Stimulants

1) methylphenidate (ex. Concerta, Ritalin)

2) modafinil (ex. Provigil)

3) lisdexamfetamine (ex. Vyvanse)

51

Indications for Use of CNS Stimulants

Treat attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

52

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of CNS Stimulants

- irregular heartbeat

- rash

- sore throat

- aggression

- hypertension

- numbness

- fainting

53

Desired Effect of Contraceptives

Inhibit conception

54

Examples of Contraceptives

1) medroxyprogesterone acetate (ex. Depo-Provera)

2) Ortho Evra

3) etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol (ex. NuvaRing)

55

Indications for Use of Contraceptives

Prevent pregnancy

56

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Contraceptives

- breast enlargement and tenderness

- cardiovascular risk

- GI upset

- headache

- irregular menstrual bleeding

- deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

- pulmonary embolism (PE)

57

Desired Effect of Decongestants

Relieve local congestion in the tissues

58

Examples of Decongestants

1) ephedrine or phenylephrine (ex. Neo-Synephrine)

2) pseudoephedrine (ex. Sudafed)

3) oxymetazoline (ex. Afrin)

4) mometasone (ex. Nasonex)

59

Indications for Use of Decongestants

Relieve nasal and sinus congestion caused by common cold, hay fever, or upper respiratory tract disorders

60

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Decongestants

- arrhythmias

- hypertension

- headache

- nausea

- dry mouth

61

Desired Effects of Diuretics

1) Inhibit reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the kidneys

2) Promote excretion of excess fluid in the body

62

Examples of Diuretics

1) hydrochlorothiazide (ex. Dyazide, Esidrix, HydroDiuril)

2) furosemide (ex. Lasix)

3) triamterene (ex. Dyrenium)

63

Indications for Use of Diuretics

1) Increase urinary output

2) Lower blood pressure

64

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Diuretics

- dehydration

- muscle weakness

- fatigue

- gout

- hyperglycemia