Drug Classifications P3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Drug Classifications P3 Deck (54):
1

Desired Effect of Erectile Dysfunction Agents

Facilitate an erection

2

Examples of ED Agents

1) sildenafil (ex. Viagra)

2) tadalafil (ex. Cialis)

3

Indications for Use of ED Agents

Facilitates an erection in patients with erectile dysfunction (impotence) and symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy (enlarged prostate)

4

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of ED Agents

- headache

- flushing

- nasal congestion

- myalgia

- prolonged erections

- vision and hearing problems

- cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

- myocardial infarction (MI)

5

Desired Effect of Expectorants

Liquefy secretions in the bronchial tubes so that they can be coughed out

6

Examples of Expectorants

1) dextromethorphan (ex. Benylin)

7

Indications for Use of Expectorants

Relieve upper respiratory tract congestion

8

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Expectorants

- vomiting

- diarrhea

- abdominal pain

9

Desired Effect of Hematopoietic Agents

Promote red blood cell production

10

Examples of Hematopoietic Agents

1) epoetin alfa (ex. Epogen, Procrit)

2) pegfilgrastim (ex. Neulasta)

11

Primary Use of Hematopoietic Agents

Treat anemia in patients undergoing chemotherapy

12

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Hematopoietic Agents

- headache

- arthralgia

- nausea

- hypertension

- diarrhea

13

Desired Effects of Hemostatic Agents

1) Control bleeding

2) Act as a blood coagulant

14

Examples of Hemostatic Agents

1) phytonadione, vitamin K

2) absorbable hemostatic agents (ex. Gelfoam, Surgicel) are applied directly to a wound

15

Indications for Use of Hemostatic Agents

1) Control acute or chronic blood-clotting disorder

2) Promote formation of absorbable, artificial clot

16

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Hemostatic Agents

- hypersensitivity reactions

- transient flushing

- dizziness

- newborn hyperbilirubinemia

17

Desired Effects of Hormone Replacement Agents

Replace hormones or compensate for hormone deficiency

18

Examples of Hormone Replacement Agents

1) insulin (ex. Levemir, NovoLog, Lantus Solostar, Humalog)

2) levothyroxine sodium (ex. Synthroid or Levoxyl)

3) estrogen (ex. Premarin)

4) vasopressin (ex. Pitressin)

19

Indications for Use of Hormone Replacement Agents

Maintain adequate hormone levels

20

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Hormone Replacement Agents

* Estrogen Replacement therapy:

- hot flashes

- nausea

- decreased sex drive

- vomiting

21

Desired Effects of Hypnotics (Sedatives)

1) Induce sleep

2) Lessen the activity of the brain

22

Examples of Hypnotics

1) zolpidem tartrate (ex. Ambien)

2) eszopiclone (ex. Lunesta)

3) secobarbital (ex. Seconal)

4) flurazepam (ex. Dalmane)

5) temazepam (ex. Restoril)

6) barbiturates

23

Indications for Use of Hypnotics

1) Treat insomnia

2) Obtain sedation (lower doses)

24

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Hypnotics

- daytime sedation

- confusion

- dry mouth

- vertigo

25

Desired Effects of Lipid-Lowering Agents

Reduce blood cholesterol levels and/or increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level

26

Examples of Lipid-Lowering Agents

1) atorvastatin calcium (ex. Lipitor)

2) simvastatin (ex. Zocor)

3) ezetimibe (ex. Vytorin or Zetia)

4) rosuvastatin (ex. Crestor)

5) fenofibrate (ex. Tricor)

27

Indications for Use of Lipid-Lowering Agents

1) Reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels and triglycerides

2) Increase HDL

28

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Lipid-Lowering Agents

- GI discomfort

- muscle pain and weakness

- liver complications

- hypersensitivity

- cataracts

- myopathy

29

Desired Effect of Miotics

Cause the pupil to contract

30

Examples of Miotics

1) carbachol (ex. Isopto Carbachol)

2) pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine)

31

Indications for Use of Miotics

Counteract pupil dilation

32

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Miotics

- corneal edema

- clouding

- stinging

- tearing

- headache

33

Desired Effect of Monoclonal Antibodies

A class of highly specific antibodies that are produced in a laboratory and used to treat cancer and conditions that cause extreme inflammation, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis

34

Examples of Monoclonal Antibodies

1) adalimumab (ex. Humira)

2) ustekinumab (ex. Stelara)

3) etanercept (ex. Enbrel)

4) trastuzumab (ex. Herceptin)

5) imatinib (ex. Gleevec)

6) fingolimod hydrochloride (ex. Gilenya)

7) infliximab (ex. Remicade)

8) rituximab (ex. Rituxan)

9) pemetrexed (ex. Alimta)

10) glatiramer (ex. Copaxone)

11) bevacizumab (ex. Avastin)

35

Indications for Use of Monoclonal Antibodies

1) Cancer treatment

2) Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis

36

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Monoclonal Antibodies

- injection site Reactions

- headache

- rash

- sinusitis

- hypersensitivity

- neurologic complications

- respiratory infections

37

Desired Effect of Mydriatic Agents (Anticholinergic)

Dilate the pupil

38

Example of Mydriatic Agents

1) atropine sulfate (ex. Isopto Atropine)

39

Indications for Use of Mydriatic Agents

Ophthalmologic examinations

40

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Mydriatic Agents

- stinging

- burning

- photosensitivity

41

Desired Effects of Narcotics

Depress the CNS, causing insensibility or stupor

42

Examples of Natural Narcotics

1) opium group (ex. codeine phosphate, morphine sulfate)

2) buprenorphine and naloxone (ex. Suboxone)

3) oxycodone (ex. OxyContin)

43

Examples of Synthetic Narcotics

1) meperidine (ex. Demerol)

2) methadone (ex. Dolophine)

44

Indications for Use of Narcotics

Relieve pain

45

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Narcotics

- suppression of vital signs

- agitation

- blurred vision

- confusion

- constipation

- oversedation

- restlessness

46

Desired Effects of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

Reduce blood glucose level by:

- increasing insulin production and/or reducing target cell resistance to insulin

OR by

- delaying glucose absorption

47

Examples of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

1) liraglutide (ex. Victoza 3-Pak)

2) rosiglitazone (ex. Avandia)

3) sitagliptin (ex. Januvia)

4) metformin HCl (ex. Glucophage)

5) acarbose (ex. Precose)

6) chlorpropamide (ex. Diabinese)

7) glimepiride (ex. Amaryl)

8) glipizide (ex. Glucotrol)

9) glyburide (ex. Micronase)

48

Indications for Use of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

Manage diabetes mellitus type 2

49

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

- GI irritation

- fatigue

- hypoglycemia

- vertigo

- possible hypersensitivity reactions

50

Desired Effects of Osteoporosis Agents

Inhibit bone reabsorption and/or promote use of calcium

51

Examples of Osteoporosis Agents

1) alendronate (ex. Fosamax)

2) risedronate (ex. Actonel)

3) calcitonin (ex. Miacalcin nasal spray and Calcimar)

4) ibandronate (ex. Boniva)

5) raloxifene hydrochloride (ex. Evista)

6) zoledronic acid (ex. Reclast, Zometa)

52

Indications for Use of Osteoporosis Agents

Promote bone mineral density and reverse progression of osteoporosis

53

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Osteoporosis Agents

- GI disorders

- esophageal irritation

54

Desired Effects of Respiratory Corticosteroid Agents

Reduce airway inflammation and bronchial resistance