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Cardio-respiratory Physiology And Pharmacology > Drug List > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drug List Deck (70)
0

Warfarin

Oral anticoagulant
Competitive antagonist for vitamin k epoxide reductase
Used in DVT and pulmonary embolism

1

Heparin

Injectable anticoagulant
Binds to antithrombin and enhances its inhibitory effects
Used in DVT, pulmonary embolism, atrial fibrillation and myocardial infarction

2

Enoxaparin and dalteparin

Anticoagulant derivatives of heparin

3

Protamine sulphate

Treats heparin overdose

4

Leprudin, bivalirudin and desinudin

Bivalent direct thrombin inhibitors

5

Argatroban, melagatran and diabigatran

Univalent direct thrombin inhibitors

6

Aspirin

Anti platelet drug
It is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor

7

Clopidogrel and ticlopidine

Anti platelet drug
ADP receptor antagonist

8

ABCIXIMAB and TIROFIBAN

Anti platelet drug
Abic- monoclonal antibodies
Tiro- RGD inhibiting peptide

9

What are the 4 classes of anti-dysrhythmic drugs ?

1- sodium channel blockers
2- beta blockers
3- potassium channel blockers
4- calcium channel blockers

10

What is the function of class 1 anti-dysrhythmic drugs ?

Affect the upstroke of atrial/ventricular tissue

11

What is the function of class 2 anti-dysrhythmic drugs ?

Affect the funny current in phase 4 depolarisation of pacemaker potential
Affect the calcium current in the upstroke of the pacemaker potential
Affect the calcium current in the plateau phase of atrial/ventricular tissue

12

What is the function of the class 3 anti-dysrhythmic drugs ?

Affect the efflux of potassium ions blocking repolarisation phase in both pacemaker and atrial/ventricular action potentials

13

What is the function of class 4 anti-dysrhythmic drugs ?

Affect the calcium current in the upstroke of pacemaker potential
Affect the plateau phase in atrial/ventricular tissue

14

Quinidine, procainamide and disopyramide

1a sodium channel blockers

15

Lidocaine and mexiletine

1b sodium channel blockers

16

Flecainide

1c sodium channel blockers

17

Propranolol and atenolol

Beta blockers
Propranolol is a non selective one
Atenolol is a beta-1 selective one

18

Soltalol and amiodarone

Potassium channel blockers

19

Verapamil and dilitazem

Calcium channel blockers
Cardiac selective

20

Digoxin

Cardiac glycoside -another anti-dysrhythmic Drug

21

What types of drugs are used in the treatment of heart failure ?

Beta blockers
ACE inhibitors
AT-1 receptor antagonists
Diuretics
Vasodilators

22

Carvedilol

Classed as a 3rd gen beta blocker
Blocks both alpha and beta receptors
Causes vasodilation at alpha receptors

23

Bisoprolol

Beta-1 selective blocker

24

Captopril and ramipril

ACE inhibitors

25

Losartan and candesartan

AT-1 receptor antagonists

26

Flurosamide and bumetanide

Loop diuretics
Most potent

27

Chlorothiazide

Non potassium sparing distal tubule diuretic

28

Amiloride and spironolactone

Potassium sparing distal tubule diuretic
Aldosterone antagonists

29

Isosorbide dinitrate

Nitrate - nitric oxide donor

30

Hydralazines

Vasodilators used to reduce intracellular calcium
Potassium channel openers to promote vasodilation
Inhibits calcium release from intracellular SR
Promotes NO production

31

What drugs are used in the treatment of angina ?

Nitrates
Calcium channel blockers
Beta blockers
Potassium channel openers

32

Glyceryl trinitrate

Nitrates - short acting

33

Nifedipine and nicardipine

Vascular selective calcium channel blockers

34

Nicorandil

Potassium channel opener
Used to cause vasodilation

35

Ivabradine

Inhibits sinus node funny current which slows pacemaker potentials so slows HR

36

What are the types of drugs used to treat hypertension ?

Thiazides diuretics and aldosterone antagonists
- for fluid control such as sodium retention
ACE inhibitors and AT-1 receptor antagonists
- reduce fluid retention and vasoconstriction affecting RAS system
Calcium channel blockers and potassium channel openers
- to promote vasodilation
Alpha and beta blockers
- reduce vasoconstriction and reduce CO and renin release
Nitric oxide donors and phsophodiesterase inhibitors
-promote vasodilation
Endotheli. Synthesis inhibitors and endothelium receptor antagonists
-reduce vasoconstriction
Prostacyclin receptor agonists
-promote vasodilation

37

Bendrofluemethiazide

Thiazides diuretic used to treat hypertension
Blocks sodium-chloride transporter reducing sodium reabsorption to reduce fluid retention

38

Spironolactone

Aldosterone antagonist used to treat hypertension
Reduces transcription of sodium channels so less sodium can be retained so reducing fluid retention

39

Minoxidil

Calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension
Blocks the influx of calcium ions which are needed for contraction so it reduces vasoconstriction in vasculature

40

Amlodipine

Potassium channel opener used to treat hypertension
Promotes potassium ions leaving the cell forcing membrane potential further from threshold helping to close calcium channels so reducing vasoconstriction

41

Doxazosin

Alpha receptor blocker used to treat hypertension
Reduces vasoconstriction

42

Sodium nitroprusside

Nitric oxide donor used to treat hypertension
Increases production of NO which increases cGMP, increasing pKG promote potassium efflux and activation of mysosin light chain phosphatase which promotes vasodilation

43

Sildenafil/Viagra

Phsophodiesterase 5 inhibitor used in treatment of hypertension
Prevents degradation of cGMP promoting vasodilation

44

Phosphoramidon

Endothelin converting enzyme inhibitor used to treat hypertension
Reduces vasoconstriction

45

Bosentan

ET-A receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension
Prevents endothelin binding therefore reducing vasoconstriction

46

Illoprost

Prosyacylin receptor agonist used to treat hypertension
Promotes vascular vasodilation

47

Methyldopa

Alpha-2 agonist in the medulla to reduce sympathetic flow
Used to treat hypertension in pregnancy

48

Sitaxentan and ambrisentan

ET-A receptor antagonist

49

Epoprostenol

Prosyacylin analogue
Causes vasodilation

50

What types of drugs are used to treat hyperlipidaemia ?

HMG CoA reductase inhibitors - statins
Fibrates
Bile acid binding resins

51

Atorvastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin

HMG CoA reductase inhibitors/statins
Inhibit endogenous cholesterol synthesis in liver by blocking HMG CoA reductase enzyme preventi conversion of HMG CoA into mevalonate

52

Gemfibrozil and fenofibrate

Fibrates used to treat hyperlipidaemia
Used against high levels of VLDL

53

Cholesteryamine and colestipol

Bile acid binding resins
Reduce amount of bile acids so enzyme that converts cholesterol to bile acids is not inhibited

54

Beta-sitosterol and sitosterol(benecol)

Plant sterols
Inhibit absorption of dietary and endogenous cholesterol

55

Other than the 3 main drugs what other substances help to treat hyperlipidaemia ?

Nicotinic acid and acipimox
Plant sterols
Fish oils

56

Salbutamol and terbutaline

Short acting beta-2 agonists
Used to treat asthma - normally administered by an inhaler
Increase cAMP which inhibits myosin light chain kinase reducing contraction so promoting bronchodilation

57

Salmeterol and isoproterenol

Long lasting beta-2 agonists
Help to prevent future asthma attacks

58

Atropine, ipratropium bromide and oxitropium bromide

Short acting muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists - anticholinergics
Prevent acetylcholine binding so promote bronchodilation
Used in asthma but primarily used in COPD

59

Tiotropium bromide

Long lasting muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist - anticholinergics
Used in asthma and COPD

60

Caffeine and theobromine and theophylline(main clinical one)

Xanthines - relieve symptoms of asthma
Inhibit phsophodiesterase enzyme which degrade cAMP so by preventing degradation, bronchodilation is promoted

61

Beclometasome and budesonide

Glucocorticosteroids = anti inflammatory drugs
Used in asthma to treat chronic inflammation
Classed as prophylactic anti asthmatic drugs

62

N-acetylcysteine and ambroxol

Mucokinetic drugs used to reduce viscosity of mucus by breaking disulphide bonds
Used to treat COPD

63

Furosemide

Diuretic which reduces fluid retention and helps to treat pulmonary oedema

64

Inamrinone

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor
Improves cardiac function in pulmonary oedema

65

Dobutamine

Beta -1 agonist
Used to improve cardiac function in pulmonary oedema

66

Atropine

Muscarinic antagonist
Reduces mucus secretions so it's used to treat cystic fibrosis

67

Glyceryl guaiacolate

Expectorants which increase fluidity of secretions and so increases productivity of coughing in cystic fibrosis

68

Naloxone

Opioid antagonist
Reverses the effects of an opioid overdose

69

Mosapride

Serotonin-4a agonist help to counteract opioid overdose without reducing opioids analgesic effects