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Flashcards in Drugs Deck (66)
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1

Methotrexate

Antimetabolite and antifolate drug
Treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases and ectopic pregnancy and for induction of medical abortions

Causes liver damage, ulcerative stomatitis, leukopenia (infection) and many others
Teratogenic

2

Amiodarone

Class III antiarrhythmic agent (blocks potassium channels - prolongs repolarisation)
Used to treat atrial and ventricular arrhythmias
Can cause liver cirrhosis

Also causes hyperthyroidism

3

Colestyramine

Bile acid sequestrant. Binds bile in GIT to prevent resorption.
Lowers plasma cholesterol (but not really used for this since statins invention)
Treat pruritis associated with liver failure and other types of cholestasis

4

Ursodeoxycholic acid - ursodiol

Secondary bile acid, reduces cholesterol absorption in GIT
Break up cholesterol too

Treat bile stones and PBC (symptomatic but no effect on mortality)

5

Penicillamine

Chelator
No antibiotic properties
Used as immunosuppression in RA
Chealtor in Wilson's disease, cystinuria

6

Cefotaxime

Third generation cephalosporin antibiotic
Broad-spectrum
Can be used for a wide range of infections
Crosses BBB better than ceftriaxone - for bacterial meningitis

7

Tazocin

Penicillin antibiotic combined with beta-lactamase inhibitor
Mainly used in Intensive care medicine
IV administration

8

Metronidazole

Antibiotic
Used particularly for anaerobic bacteria and Protozoa
Drug of choice for first episodes of Clos.difficle infection

Common adverse effects for systemic therapy: nausea, diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, dizziness, metallic taste

High doses and long term treatment: leucopenia, neutropenia, increased risk of peripheral neuropathy and CNS toxicity

9

Deferoxamine/desferrioxamine

Cheating agent to remove iron from body

10

Naltrexone

Opioid antagonist
Used in management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence

11

Rifampicin

Antibiotic that inhibits RNA polymerase
Used for TB treatment and other mycobacterium
Also for cholestatic pruritus

12

Amphetamines

CNS Stimulant
Used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy

13

Nalidixic acid

Historically used to treat UTIs

Can cause seizures

14

Beta-interferon

Used to decrease number of relapses in RRMS

Reduces the number of inflammatory cells which cross the BBB

15

Glatiramer acetate

Immunomodulator drug used to decrease number of relapses in RRMS

Exact mechanism of action is unknown

16

Oxybutynin

Anticholinergic used to relieve urinary symptoms and bladder difficulties - eg in MS

17

Baclofen

Muscle relaxant - treats spasticity

GABA receptor agonist

18

Dantrolene sodium

Postsynaptic muscle relaxant - lessens excitation-contraction coupling by preventing calcium release from ER

Treatment for malignant hyperthermia (triggered by General anaesthetic)

Also used to treat spasticity

19

Tizanidine

Muscle relaxant
A2 adrenergic agonist

Treats spasms, and tightness of muscles eg in MS, ALS and back pain

20

Diazepam

Benzodiazepine - treats wide range of conditions including anxiety, insomnia, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol/benzo/opiate withdrawal


Enhance effect of GABA at its receptor

21

Clonazepam

Benzodiazepine - anxiolytics, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, sedative

22

Natalizumab

Monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of Crohn's and MS

23

Alemtuzumab

Monoclonal antibody used to treatment leukaemia, lymphoma and MS - binds to CD52 a protein present in surface of mature lymphocytes

24

Fingolimod

Immunomodulating drug for treating MS
Sequesters lymphocytes in lymph nodes therefore stopping them from contributing to an autoimmune reaction

25

Cabergoline

D2 receptor agonist given in treatment of prolactinoma - preferential to bromocriptine

26

Metoclopramide

Dopamine receptor antagonist - used to treat nausea and vomiting and GOR

27

Haloperidol

Butyrophenone derivative - inhibits dopamine

Antipsychotic, anti-n&v, agitations, hallucinations in alcohol withdrawal

28

Octreotide/lanreotide

Somatostatin analogue - suppress GH secretion

29

Pegvisomant

GH receptor antagonist

30

Cinacalcet

Increases sensitivity of PT cells to calcium therefore decreases secretion of PTH in hyperparathyroidism