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Flashcards in DWS Sparkles Deck (137):

Regarding sparkling wine
what are the various bottle sizes from smallest to largest?

Piccolo 1/4
Demi (split or half also) 1/2
Standard 1
Magnum 2
Jeroboam 4
Rehoboam 6
Methuselah 8
Salmenazar 12
Bathazar 16
Nebuchadnezzar 20
and other sizes
Melchior 24
Solomon 26.66
Sovereign 34
Primat 36
Melchizedek 40


Where is Limoux?

Limoux is a small town and appellation
on the Aude river in the eastern Pyrenean foothills
of Langudoc-Rousillon, Southern France.


Explain the climate and soils of Limoux.

Limoux's vineyards are higher (peaking at 400 meters),
cooler and further from the Mediterranean influence
of any other Languedoc appellation.
Soils are regionally varied but mostly clay and limestone.


What are the grapes permitted for the sparling wines of Limoux?

The traditional grape Mauzac (known locally as Blanquette), Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc & Pinot Noir are permitted in the sparkling wines


What are the allowed yields for the sparkling wines of Limoux?

50 hl/ha which are amoung the lowest for French sparkling wines.


What is the oldest sparkling wine style of Limoux?

Blanquette Method Ancestrale,
formerly known as Vin de blanquette.


Historically speaking what is special
about Blanquette method Ancestrale?

Its history pre-dates that of Champagnes sparkling wines, first recorded in 1680.


What is the method of production for Blanquette Method Ancestrale?

it is bottled partially fermented
and does not undergo a second ferment,
but achieves its sparkle through the
continuation of the first ferment.


What are the grape varieties allowed for the method rurale sparkling wine of Limoux?

100% Mauzac (aka Blanquette)


What are the grape varieties allowed for
the Blanquette de Limoux sparkling wine?

Minimum 90% Mauzac (aka Blanquette)
with Chenin Blanc and Chardonnay also


What are the grape varieties allowed for the Cremant de Limoux sparkling wine?

40-70% Chardonnay, 20-40% Chenin Blanc,
10-20% Mauzac and 0-10% Pinot Noir


What is the minimum time on lees required
for the Cremant de Limoux sparkling wine?

12 months


What is the minimum time on lees
required for the Blanquette de Limoux sparkling wine?

9 months


Describe Blanquette Method Ancestrale in style

Sweet, sometimes cloudy (due to the lack of disgorgement)
low in alcohol. A soft texture with hints of apple,
sweet cider and apple peel.


Where else in France uses the production method 'Ancestrale' or 'Rurale'

Savoie and Gaillac where it may be called 'méthode gaillacois'


What is Prosecco?

A grape variety also known as Glera native to the Veneto region of Italy
used to make the popular sparkling wine
of the same name using the charmat method.


How is Prosecco rated in Italy? IGT, DOC, DOCG?

Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdabiodene & Montello Colli Asolani were elevated in 2009 to DOCG status, The Prosecco DOC zone, covering a wider area, continues to exist while producers outside of the designated DOCG and DOC zones are no longer permitted to use the Prosecco name on product labels instead, they use the name 'Glera'.


Regarding Prosecco - what is the name of the river near Conegliano Valdabiodene?



What varietals are allowed to be used for Prosecco DOCG?

85% Prosecco (Glera) and up to 15% Verdiso, Perera, Glera Lunga and Bianchetta. Spumante may also use Chardonnay and Pinot.


What is considered to be the most superior vineyard for Prosecco production?

The hill of Cartizze, a steep 1,000-foot-high vineyard of 107 hectares of vines, owned by 140 growers.


Roughly what is the annual production of Prosecco?

Approximately 150 million bottles of Italian Prosecco are produced annually (2008).


What are the sugar levels for Prosecco - brut, extra dry and dry?

Proseccos are labeled
"brut" for up to 12 g of residual sugar;
"extra dry" for 12–17 g
or "dry" for 17-32g.


Can I keep my Prosecco for ay length in the cellar?

Prosecco should be consumed
while it is young and fresh,
preferably before it is two years old.


Describe the characteristics of a dry prosecco

Prosecco is medium to low in alcohol, generally dry with flavors of yellow apple, pear, white peach and apricot. With intense amylic, primary aromas and taste fresh, light and comparatively simple.


Regarding Prosecco, what does the term Rive refer to.

For spumante DOGC wine the term "Rive" indicates those greater vineyards situated on steep slopes. Maximum yields are 13 tonnes/ha, the grapes must be picked by hand and the vintage must be shown on the label.


What are the maximum yields for Prosecco?

DOC - 18 tonnes/ha
DOCG - 13.5 tonnes/ha
Cartizze - 12 tonnes/ha
Rive - 13 tonnes/ha


Prosecco must be a minimum of 85% Glera. What are the other allowed grapes?

Glera Lunga
And for Spumante
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir


When was Alsace granted AOC for Cremant?

August 24, 1976


How long must Crémant d’Alsace spend on lees?

9 Months


What grapes are used for Crémant d’Alsace?

Mostly Pinot Blanc, with Pinot Gris, Riesling, Auxerrois, Pinot Noir & Chardonnay (only AOC Cremant) also allowed.


What is the maximum yield Crémant d’Alsace?

There is a maximum yield of 80 hl/ha.


What is the style of Crémant d’Alsace?

The wines tend to be of high quality & well made with a particularly fine mousse, high acidity, and to be relatively light in body with delicate hints of citrus, lemon-grass and florals. Only if substantial proportions of Riesling are used do they acquire strong flavour.


What is the climate of Alsace?

The climate is continental with particularly low rainfall, a result of the rain shadow cast by the Vosges, these mountains also protect from prevailing westerly winds, making the summer here among the driest and warmest in the northern half of France. At the other end of the temperature scale, the winters here are cold and snow is not uncommon.


Explain the soils of Alsace.

The soils vary (due to the glacial formation of the Voges) from sandstone, granite and volcanic rock types in the foothills, to clay-rich limestone and marlstone on the alluvial plains.


Crémant d’Alsace may not be bottled before when?

The wine cannot be bottled before 1st January following the harvest.


Regarding grape growing and harvest for Crémant d’Alsace, what are some of the major regulations?

By law, there is no minimum vine density for planting. Before the harvest, winegrowers are obliged to declare to their town hall which vineyards are intended for the production of Crémant d'Alsace.
Grapes for the production of Crémant d'Alsace are generally picked first, at the very start of
the harvest.
The must should have a minimum natural sugar content of 145 grams of sugar per litre, the equivalent of 8.5° potential alcohol.
Grapes must be harvested manually and transported in containers holding less than 100
kgs, and whole bunch pressed. Archimedes screws and chains are not permitted.


What is the market like for Crémant d’Alsace?

Crémant d'Alsace is a significant part of the wine production in Alsace, with 18% of the region's vineyards used for this purpose. Sales have multiplied by 14 in 26 years, up from 2.2 million bottles in 1982 to 30 million bottles today (2008). Crémant d'Alsace is the market leader in at-home sales of AOC sparkling wines in France.


Who are the important and interesting names of Cremant d'Alsace?

The firms that dominate the market, especially the export market, are Dopff au Moulin, Lauger and Wolfberger. Barmès Buecher is a smaller producer making a high quality sparkling.


Regarding sparkling wine, what is blanc de blancs?

French for 'white of whites', may justifiably be used to describe white wines made from pale-skinned grapes, as the great majority of them are. The term has real significance, however, only when used for white sparkling wines, in the production of which dark-skinned grapes often predominate. A blanc de blancs Champagne for example, is, unusually, made exclusively from Chardonnay grapes. It is a speciality Cote de Blancs in Champagne. Salon is one of the most famous and well respected.


Regarding sparkling wine, what is blanc de noirs?

French for 'white of blacks', describes a white wine made from dark-skinned grapes by pressing them very gently and running the pale juice off the skins as early as possible. Many such still wines have a slightly pink tinge (white Zinfandel and Dole Blanche). The term has a specific meaning in the Champagne region, where it is used to describe a Champagne made exclusively from Pinot Noir and Meunier grapes. It is a speciality of the Aube in Champagne. Bollinger’s VVF is one of the most rare and famous produced exclusively from un-grafted Pinot Noir vines that grow in The Clos St-Jacques vineyard and the Chaudes Terres vineyard (literally the back garden of the Bollinger Estate). The Vieilles Vignes Françaises blend in the past included Pinot Noir from the Bouzy vineyard called Croix Rouge which unfortunately, unaffected by phylloxera for around 100 years, succumbed to the louse in 2004.


When was Bollinger founded?

An independent Champagne house, Bollinger & Cie was founded in 1829.


What is the unique Champagne produced by Bollinger?

Vieilles Vignes Françaises, a blanc de noirs produced exclusively from ungrafted Pinot Noir vines that grow in The Clos St-Jacques vineyard and the Chaudes Terres vineyard (literally the back garden of the Bollinger Estate). The Vieilles Vignes Françaises blend in the past included Pinot Noir from the Bouzy vineyard called Croix Rouge which unfortunately, unaffected by phylloxera for around 100 years, succumbed to the louse in 2004.


What is the difference
between Sekt and
Deutscher Sekt?

Sekt is a word used in German-speaking countries to describe quality sparkling wine as defined by the EU. In Germany the fruit can come from any country. Deutscher Sekt is made exclusively from German grapes


Aside from Sekt and Deutscher Sekt what other level of sparkling wine may be found in Germany?

Sekt b.A. (bestimmter Anbaugebiete, in parallel to Qualitätswein b.A.) only from grapes from one of the 13 quality wine regions in Germany.


What are the four main sparkling wines from the Rhone?

Saint Peray Mousseaux AOC since 1926,
Clairette de Die AOC since 1993,
Clairette de Die Tradition &
Cremant de Die since 1993


Where are the vineyards of Die?

East of the town of Valence, in the French Drome department on the drome river, on the border area of Northern and Southern Rhone.


What is the climate like in Die?

In the foothills of the Vercors Mountains this is considered a mediterranean climate with altitudes of up to 700 metres.


What are the soils like in Die?

The soils of Die are chalky agiliferous which aids in retaining water through the long dry summers.


Who has been responsible for enhancing the reputation of the Die wines?

The local co-op Jaillance, who produce 3 in every 4 bottles.


What is interesting about the top cuvee from Jaillance?

It contains no Clairette.


Which grapes produce Clairette de Die AOC?

75% minimum Muscat Blanc a Petit Grains and a maximum of Clairette.


What are the characteristics of Clairette de Die?

Pale gold in colour, Floral honeysuckle and rose aromas with peach and apricot notes. Off dry and fruity with a soft delicate mousse. It is best consumed young - within 2 years.


Which grapes produce Cremant de Die?

Formerly 100% Clairette; Aligote and muscat are now permitted (up to 45%).


What are the characteristics of Cremant de Die

the wines generally have a particularly 'grapey' taste underlying the other characteristic aromas of peach, apricot and honeysuckle the aligote can add a green fruit note.


What are the permitted varietals allowed in the Champagne region?

Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier, Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, White Arbanne & Pinot Meslier.


Which Champagne house produced a 100% wine from one of the 'other' allowed varietals in Champagne.

Duval-Leroy with its 100% Pinot Meslier 1998 Authentis.


Explain Pinot Noir in reference to Champagne

Pinot noir performs best in cool, limestone terrain and predominates largely in Montagne de Reims and the Cote des Bar. It adds backbone & body to the blend producing characterful wines with aromas of red berries


When is pruning in the Champagne region?

Pruning commences in the month following harvest, as soon as the leaves begin to fall & continues until mid-december.
It resumes in mid-January after the winter dormancy & continues until late march or the vine reaches the 4 leaf stage.


What are the 4 permitted training systems of the Champagne region? State the 2 most important 1st.

Taille Chablis, Taille en Cordon de Royat & also Vallee de la Marne and Guyot (single or double)


What does summer maintenance involve in the Champagne region.

desuckering (manual removal of non-fruitful shoots), trellising (each plant can have a maximum standing height of 1.3m) and pinching back (excess shoots).


Describe Taille en Cordon de Royat

1 of 4 permitted Champagne vine training systems.
For pinot noir and pinot Meunier.
Good for high vigour vineyards.
Spur pruned, single horizontal cordon with VSP.
Retains high level of permanent wood aiding in frost resilience & ease with 2nd cropping if the 1st is destroyed by frost.


Describe Taille Chablis

Recognised as the most important system for training Chardonnay vines in Champagne, this is a more difficult system as it can have up to 5 main branches each with 5 buds.
Branches are grown at yearly intervals.
Retains a high level of permanent wood aiding in frost resilience and ease with 2nd crop growth if the 1st id destroyed by frost.


Where is Asti and Moscato d'Asti produced?

Asti is a town and provence in Italy's Piedmont region.


What quality levels are Asti and Moscato d'Asti? Since when?

DOCG. 1993


What method of production is used to make Asti and Moscato d'Asti?

The Asti Method, a variation of the tank method.


Briefly describe the production method of Asti DOCG.

The Asti method. Moscato Bianco must is partially fermented and then stored at or just below zero degrees until needed then fermented in pressurised tanks to 5 bars of pressure with a minimum of 7% ABV. Cooled to stop ferment. Filtered to remove yeast and nitrogenous yeast nutrients.


What is the climate & soil type of Asti?

Mountainous with a continental climate and calcareous clay soils.


Name and describe the town that centres the production of Asti.

Canelli is on a corner of the Belbo river within the Alto Monferrato.


How many regions are permitted to make Asti?



Who overseas the laws and production of Asti?

The Consorzio del Asti DOCG.


Describe the varietals and wine styles of Moscato d'Asti and Asti DOCG.

Light, sweet spumante of Asti is like the sweeter, lower alcohol (5% abv) & more delicate (1 bar of pressure) Moscato d'Asti made with Moscato Bianco. Aromatic with notes of honey, grape, peach and florals with a delicate persistant mousse.


In terms of production, who dominates Asti DOCG?

Asti is dominated by large commercial houses 18 of which produce 80% of its 80 million bottle per year production most of which is exported.


How many bottles of Moscato d'Asti are produced each year?

7 million.


Who is one of the largest houses in terms of production of Asti?



What is the CIVC? And what does it do?

The Comite Interprofessional du Vin de Champagne. Est 1941, this co-operative group of Champagne growers, co-ops, shippers and Houses overseen by the government they are responsible for defending the word 'Champagne' outside of the region, research, organising & controlling production, distribution and promotion of the wines of Champagne. Until 1990 it set the price for grapes and still intervenes to regulate the size of the harvest and decide whether any of it should be blocked or retained as juice rather than vinified and sold.


How is the CIVC funded.

The CIVC if funded by a levy on production and taxes on sales.


What does CIVC stand for?

Comite Interprofessional du Vin de Champagne.


Who/what makes up the CIVC?

A co-operative group of Champagne Houses, growers, co-ops and shippers.


What is the CIVC directly responsible for?

Protecting the word 'Champagne' outside the region; research; organising & controlling production, distribution and promotion of the wines of Champagne.


What changed within the CIVC in 1990?

Until 1990 the CIVC was responsible for setting the price of grapes (Eschelle des Crus) and still intervenes to regulate the size of the harvest and decide if any of the production should be blocked or kept as juice rather than vinified and sold.


Who oversees the CIVC?

The government oversees the CIVC.


Where is the CIVC based?

The CIVC is based in Epernay.


When was the CIVC established?

The CIVC was established in 1941


How long has Australia been making sparking Shiraz?

since the 1860's


On which parallel is Champagne located?

Champagne is on the 49th Parallel.


What kind of soil makes Champagne so famous?

Limestone and especially Chalk. WIth belemnite and Micraster fossils


Where else does this famous soil extend?

The ancient belemnite chalk runs west into Chablis, the Loire especially around Sancerre, across the English Channel to the White Cliffs of Dover and South Downs England.


Which Champagne crus were elevated to grand cru and in which year?

in 1985 Chouilly, Mesnil-sur-Oger, Oger, Oiry and Verzy were promoted to Grand Cru.


What is the climate of the Loire Valley

The Loire Valley has a continental climate that has some Maritime influences from the Atlantic Ocean.


What are the main soils of the Loire Valley?

The main soils of the Loire are chalky limestone (Tuffeau Blanc)


What are the permitted grape varieties for Cremant de Loire?

Chenin Blanc (no Sauvignon Blanc but all other varieties are permitted) Cab franc and Cab Sav, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Pineau d'Aunis, Arbois, Grolleau Noir and Gris (max 30%)


What are the basic rules for Cremant AC wines?

Traditional Method, Hand Picking, whold bunch pressing, Min 9 months tirage,


Red Touraine Mousseau is from where and made from which varietails?

Red Touraine mousseau is only from Chinon, Bourgueil or St Nicolas de Bourgueil and must be 100% Cabernet Franc.


When did Franciacorta become DOCG?

Franciacorta became DOCG in 1995.


What are the varietals used for Franciacorta?

Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Bianco (not more than 50%).


How long does Franciacorta spend on lees (triage)

NV - 25 months (WSET study guide) or 18 months on lees, 25 aged (T Stevenson)
Millisimato (vintage) - 30 months on lees 37 months aged.
Riserva - 37 months on lees (WSET Study Guide)


What are the soils like in Franciacorta?

Mineral rich soney gravel from Glacier deposits.


What is the climate like for Franciacorta?

The climate around the Lombardian Franciacorta region is continental with moderating influences from Lake Iseo.


Is Franciacorta the only DOCG for Traditional Method sparkling wine in Italy?

No, since Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico became DOCG in 2007.


What does the viticulture involve for Franciacorta?

High density planting (minimum 4000 vines per hectare) to lower yields. No geneva double curtain or Tendone is allowed.


What is Saten Franciacorta?

A similar blended sparkling (No Pinot Noir) with lower bottle pressure 5 atmospheres, only Brut and 1st ferment is often in Barriques.


Who are 2 of the biggest exporters of Franciacorta?

Bellavista and Ca del Bosco.


What is Sekt as defined by the EU?

Sekt is a word used in German speaking countries to describe sparkling wine.


What method of production in Germany may not call itself Sekt and what word may it use?

Wines made sparkling by C02 injection may not call them selves sekt but may use the term Schaumwein.


How much Sekt is made using German grapes?

Only around 10%


What are the different levels of Sekt in terms of Quality above simple 'Sekt'

Deutcher Sekt - must be from German grapes.
Deutcher Sekt Bestimmter Anbaugebeite (BA)- from one of the 13 German regions.


What is Winzersekt?

Known as Hauersekt in Austria, Winzersekt in Germany is a traditional method sparkling wine made by the grapegrower, the vintage, varietal and producer name must be on the label.


In regards to Sekt, what are th producers of Rheinhessen doing differently?

Within Rheinhessen is the 1000 vinter strong Winzersekt Producers Association in Sprendlingen (since 1981), born from frustration with most sektkelleri using non-german fruit to make substandard sekt. The pride themselves on using top quality fruit to make great Sparkling wines.


What is Perlwein?

Perlwein is a semi-sparkling carbonated wine with 1-2.5 atmospheres. It can be Perlwein BA.


What else may be on the label of a Sekt Bestimmter Anbaugebiete?

A Bereich (district) and Grosslage (general site/vineyard), Einzellage (individual vineyard) only if 85% of the fruit is from the name vineyard & the remainder from the Anbaugebiet.


The best German Sekt use which grapes?

Riesling, Chardonna and the Pinots.


What is the general climate of Germany?

Continental with varying influences within each region. The most favorable conditions are south or southwest facing slopes of protected valleys. Along the Rhein and its tributaries, the valleys of the Elbe, Saale & Unstrut Rivers.
Exposure to sunlight is more intense on slopes .


What is Liqueur d'Expedition?

The French term for dosage, the final addition to a sparkling wine, a thick sticky mix of cane sugar and wine (reserve wine or the same wine) which replaces the shortfall caused by the disgorgement of the yeasty sediment that has accumulated dureing remuage.


What does Liqueur d'Expedition do?

Determines the residual sugar and the 'style' of the finished wine; balances the high acid (bottle age & extended autolysis can achieve the same mellowing effect). The older the wine the lower the dosage needed.


What is the Maillard reaction?

With aged wines (post disgorgement) the dosage is responsible for complex mushroom, honey & roast vanilla aromas; this is the Maillard Effect, a direct reaction between the sugar and the amino acids created and modified during autolysis.


Champagne House Roederer was known as what before it became Roederer?

Dubois Pere et Fils (est 1776)


When and how did Roederer become the name for a Champagne House?

It was inherited by Louis Roederer in 1833.


Success for Roederer came mostly from which market?

The Russian market.


What is the Prestige Cuvee produced by Roederer? How did it come about?

Cristal was commissioned by Tsar Alexander II in 1877 who wanted a clear bottle worthy of the table of royalty.


When did the Cristal become commercially available?



What almost destroyed the House of Roederer?

The Russian Revolution which left Roederer with stockpiles of Sweet Champagne.


How much vineland if any does Roederer own?

214 hectares, 2/3 of what is needed for production.


What is the blend if any of Roederer's Cristal?

Approximately 50:50


Approximately what is the annual production of Roederer?

3.2 million bottles.


un logement



Roederer is based in which town?



Bollinger is based in which town?



When and by whom was Krug founded?

1843 by Johann Joseph Krug


Krug is based in which town?



What is unique about Krug?

It specialises in Prestige Cuvees only.


What is the flagship of the Krug range?

The MV (multiple vintage) Krug Grand Cuvee.


What is unique about Krug in regards to fermentation?

Krug is the ONLY Champagne house to persist in barrel fermentation for its entire production of base wine.


What Kind of oak if any do they use at Krug?

Old 205 litre Argonne oak barriques.


Does Krug use malolactic fermentation?



How long does Krug Grand Cuvee spend on lees?

5-7 years.


Describe the assemblage of Krug Special Cuvee

Wines from 6-10 different vintages spaning 15 years or more.


Name the 2 single vineyard wines of Krug and the 1st vintage of these wines.

Clos de Mesnil in 1971. 1st vintage in 1979
Clos de Ambonnay 1995