Dynamic Earth: Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dynamic Earth: Chapter 1 Deck (25):
1

the scientific study of the Earth

Geology

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the study of Earth's materials, changes of the surface and interior of the Earth, and the forces that cause those changes.

Physical Geology

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Natural Resources, Geological Hazards, and Environmental Protection are the three...

Practical Aspects of Geology

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Earth layer: Continental Crust: thicker and less dense. Oceanic Crust: thinner, more dense. (30km thick and 0dg Celsius)

Crust

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Earth layer: Hot solid that flows slowly. (2,900km 1000dg Celsius (Mg, Fe, Al, Si, O)

Mantle

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Earth layer: Outer: metallic liquid. Inner: metallic solid, mostly iron (5,200km, Liquid, 4300dg Celsius (Fe, S)

Core

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Earth layer: Solid (Fe)

Inner core

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created 4.56 m.y.a

Earth

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Formed 4 b.y.a, upper most mantle, underlying the lithosphere

Asthenosphere

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the gases that envelope the earth

Atmosphere

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water on or near the earths surface

Hydrosphere

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All living or once living materials

Biosphere

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the solid rocky earth

Geosphere

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An engine that gets its energy from the sun, is the driver of atmospheric and hydrospheric circulation, and controls the weathering of rocks at Earth's surface

Earth's External Heat Engine

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An engine that drives most geospheric phenomena (volcanic magnetism, tectonism)

Earth's Internal Heat Engine

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A mechanical layer (100km) both crust and uppermost mantle that makes up earths tectonic plates.

Lithosphere

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A boundary in which plates move apart, magma rises, cools and forms new lithosphere

Divergent Boundaries

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A boundary in which plates slide past one another, fault zones, earthquakes mark boundaries

Transform Boundaries

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A boundary in which plates move toward each other, common as mountain belts and volcanoes

Convergent Boundaries

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volcanic and/or tectonic forces build crust above sea level, erosion allows isostatic uplift of underlying continental rocks

Uplift

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rainfall and glaciers flow down slopes, moving water, ice and wind loosen and erode geological materials creating sediment

Weathering and Erosion

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loose sediment is deposited and earlier sediments get buried by later ones and harden

Deposition

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word describing elevation

Topographic

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land under a body of water

Bathymetric

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location of an earthquake

Epicenter