Dynamic Earth: Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dynamic Earth: Chapter 2 Deck (22):
1

deepest drill hole

12km (did not reach mantle)

2

a branch of geology that studies the interior of the Earth

Geophysics

3

waves that travel through the interior, following ray paths bent by varying density affected by temperature and pressure gradients which is known as refraction

Body Waves

4

waves that are longitudinal or compressional that travel less than twice as fast as S-waves and can travel through and type of material

P-Wave

5

transverse or shear waves, ground is displaces perpendicularly to the direction of propagation and can only travel through solids

S-Wave

6

waves that pass through the entire earth

Seismic Waves

7

the return of some waves to the surface after bouncing off a rock layer boundary

Seismic Reflection

8

bending of seismic waves as they pass from one material to another having different seimic wave velocities

Seismic Refraction

9

The oceanic crust is composed of:

Mafic, primarily basalt and gabbro

10

The continental crust is composed of:

Felsic, with average composition similar to granite

11

equilibrium of adjacent blocks of brittle crust floating on upper mantle

Isostacy

12

rising or sinking of crustal blocks to achieve isostatic balance

Isostatic Adjustment

13

rise of the crust after ice sheet removal

Crustal Rebound

14

force determined by the masses and distance between them

Gravitational Force

15

tools that detects tiny changes in gravity at Earth's surface related to total mass beneath any given point

Gravity Meters

16

a region of magnetic force

Magnetic Field

17

times when the poles of Earth's magnetic field switch

Magnetic Reversals

18

the study of ancient magnetic fields in rocks

Paleomagnetism

19

a tool used to measure local magnetic field strength and can detect metallic ore deposits, igneous rocks, and layers of non-magnetic sediments

Magnetometers

20

temperature increase with depth into the Earth

Geothermal Gradients

21

the gradual loss of heat through Earth's surface

Heat Flow

22

the Earth's surface is divided into a few large, thick plates that move slowly and change in size over time (lithospheric plates

Plate Tectonics