Flashcards in Dysphagia Deck (9)
What test is considered the gold standard for diagnosing swallowing problems?
Modified Barium Swallow
Name the three phases of a swallow.
Oral Preparatory Stage- don’t think he is counting this as a phase though
Oral Phase: begins when tongue initiates posterior movement of the bolus toward the pharynx; voluntary, requiring the person to be alert and involved in the process
Pharyngeal Phase: marks the beginning of the involuntary portion of the swallowing process; begins when bolus passes any point between the anterior faucial arches and where the tongue base crosses the lower rim of the mandible into the pharynx
Esophageal Phase: starts when the bolus enters the esophagus through the cricopharyngeal juncture or upper esophageal sphincter (UES); as food enters the esophagus, the epiglottis returns to relaxed position and the airway opens
Name several conditions that may lead to dysphagia.
Esophageal dysphagia: esophageal tumors, foreign bodies, GERD, eosinophilic esophagitis, scleroderma, radiation therapy
Oropharyngeal dysphagia: MS, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, brain injury, spinal cord injury, cancer, pharyngeal diverticula
What is the most commonly recommended compensatory strategy to improve a swallow?
#1: Postural techniques (I am thinking this)
Techniques to improve oral sensory awareness
Modification of bolus volume and speed of presentation
Sit upright with the hips flexed to 90 degrees
Tilting the patient's chin down when swallowing
A person with hemiplegia may swallow more safely by performing what compensatory maneuver?
Turning the head to the left or the right when swallowing.
Turn to the weak side when swallowing if weakness or paralysis on pharynx.
Turn to the stronger side when swallowing if lingual or pharyngeal weakness
A person with hemi-sensory deficits may swallow more safely by performing what two compensatory maneuvers?
How long should a person sit up after eating?
List three other strategies that can help a person swallow more safely.
Tilt the chin down about 45 degrees to help trigger the pharyngeal swallow, laryngeal closure, or to help the tongue move correctly
Thicken the consistency of the liquids they are consuming because this tends to travel through the oral cavity and pharynx at a slower rate to allow more time for the pharyngeal swallow to trigger
Reduce the size of the bolus
Swallow twice per bite and alternate solids with liquids