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Adults Fall 2015 - Final > Stroke > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stroke Deck (49)
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1

Be able to explain why hemi-ADL strategies may foster learned non-use of hemiplegic limbs.

individual neglects to use the affected extremity
ADL strategies typically use the unaffected arm to do the majority of the tasks?

2

What is shaping in the context of constraint-induced therapy?

behavioral techniques that approach a desired motor outcome, in small, successive increments
shaping strategies allow subjects to experience successful gains in performance with relatively small amounts of motor improvement

3

The task-oriented approach to rehabilitation is important in stroke rehab. What are its four components in OT treatment?

task-oriented approach is an occupation-based approach that is client-centered and focuses on enabling the client to achieve motor recovery through occupational performance using real objects, environments, and meaningful occupations.
1. Encourage weight bearing over the involved side
2. Encourage trunk rotation
3. Encourage trunk elongation
4. Encourage scapular protraction

4

Dynamic systems theory, on which motor control therapy is based, is seen as an interaction among what three factors?

The interaction between client factors, the context, and the occupations that must be performed to enact the client’s roles

5

What does Pedretti say is the most effective factor in all forms of CIT?

Intensive practice and functional use of the affected upper extremity repeatedly across multiple contexts for many hours a day for a period of consecutive days

6

What UE pathologies can limit the success of CIT?

shoulder subluxation
soft tissue shortening
joint contractures/deformities

7

CIT research protocols assume how many hours of continuous practice a day?

6 hours
Wear the mit for 90% of daily activities?
(Not 100% sure about this)

8

What amount of upper extremity function would you hope to see before beginning CIT therapy?

ability to move affected arm in 45 degrees of shoulder flexion and abduction, 90 degrees of elbow flexion and extension, 20 degrees of wrist extension, and 10 degrees of extension at the MCPs and IPs

9

Why would you choose not to try CIT with a hemiplegic patient who has cognitive impairment?

Cognitive impairments might prevent adequate participation in the strict protocol

10

What is the difference between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke? Which is more common?

Ischemic: insufficient blood flow to the brain (most common)
Hemorrhagic: bleeding; subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages; has numerous causes

11

7 modifiable stroke risk factors

hypertension
management of cardiac diseases
management of diabetes
cigarette smoking
excessive use of alcohol
use of illegal drugs
lifestyle factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, diet, and emotional stress

12

Blockage or rupture of which brain artery is most common? Be able to list all deficits associated with this particular stroke.

1. Middle cerebral artery
-Dysfunction of either hemisphere
-Contralateral hemiplegia (mostly face, arms, and tongue)
-Contralateral hemisensory loss
-Visual field impairment
-Poor contralateral conjugate gaze
-Ideational apraxia
-Lack of judgement
-Perseveration
-Field dependency
-Impaired organization of behavior
-Depression
-Lability
-Apathy
-Behavioral abnormalities

2. Right hemisphere dysfunction
-Left unilateral body neglect
-Left unilateral visual neglect
-Anosognosia
-Visuospatial impairment
-Left unilateral motor apraxia

3. Left hemisphere dysfunction
-Bilateral motor apraxia
-Broca’s aphasia
-Frustration
-Wernicke’s aphasia

13

Top down vs. Bottom Up assessment. What are they? When would you use each?

1. A top-down approach to assessment is an assessment that focuses on the evaluation of performance areas

Principles of this approach include the following:
-inquiry into role competency and meaningfulness is the starting point for evaluation
-inquiry is focused on the roles that are important to the client who sustained a stroke, particularly those in which the client was engaged before the stroke
-any discrepancy of roles in the past, present, r future is identified to help determine a treatment plan
-the tasks that define a person are identified, as well as whether those tasks can be performed and the reasons that the task is problematic
-a connection is determined between the components of function and occupational performance

2. A bottom-up approach first focuses on dysfunction of client factors

14

Be able to name 10 of the 15 items scored on the NIH stroke scale.

level of consciousness (1a, 1b, and 1c = 3 scores)
best gaze
visual fields
facial palsy
arm motor
leg motor
limb ataxia
sensory
best language
dysarthria
extinction and inattention

15

Be able to name and describe at least four non-motoric reasons for a person with stroke having difficulty in performing a hemi-ADL task.

Pain
Edema
Muscle tone
Joint alignment
Cognition
Sensory deficit
Contracture and deformity
Superimposed orthopedic conditions
Loss of postural control to support UE control
Learned nonuse
Loss of biomechanical alignment

16

In stroke rehab, what are five intervention principles that utilize the task-oriented approach?

help clients adjust to role and task performance limitations by exploring new roles and tasks

create an environment that includes the common challenges of everyday life

practice functional tasks or close simulations that have been identified as important by participants to find effective and efficient strategies for performance

provide opportunities for practice outside of therapy time (e.g. homework assignments)

minimize ineffective and inefficient movement patterns

17

What are three effects that a stroke can have on a person’s trunk?

Inability to perceive midline as a result of spatial relationship dysfunction and leading to sitting postures that are misaligned from the vertical

Assumption of static postures that do not support engagement in functional activities

Multi directional trunk weakness

Inability to shift weight through pelvis anteriorly, posteriorly, and laterally

Spinal contracture secondary to soft-tissue shortening
Inability to move the trunk segmentally (i.e. the trunk moves as a unit)

18

List three ADL tasks that promote improved trunk control, and explain what the trunk does during those tasks.

Feeding: anterior weight shift occurs to bring the upper part of the body toward the table, to prevent spillage of food from utensils, and to support a hand-to-mouth pattern
Dressing: lateral weight shift to one side of the pelvis occurs so that pants and underwear can be donned over the hips
Oral Care: anterior weight shift occurs so that saliva and toothpaste may be expectorated
Transfer: the trunk extends with concurrent hip flexion to initiate a sit-to-stand transition
Meal Preparation: the trunk flexes into gravity in a controlled fashion to support a reach pattern to the lower shelf of the refrigerator

19

Pedretti lists 7 components that you can manage in helping a person with stroke better perform ADL in sitting. Know them.

• Establishing a neutral yet active starting alignment (i.e., a position of readiness to function)
• The client should attempt reaching activities from the above posture
• Establish the ability to maintain the trunk in midline using external cues
• Maintaining trunk range of motion (ROM) by wheelchair and armchair positioning that maintains the trunk in proper alignment
• Prescribing dynamic weight-shifting activities to allow practice of weight shifts through the pelvis
• Strengthening the trunk, best achieved by using tasks that require the client to control the trunk against gravity
• Using compensatory strategies and environmental adaptations when trunk control does not improve to a sufficient level and the client is at risk for injury

20

Pedretti lists 5 strategies for improving task performance in standing. Know them.

• Establishing a symmetrical base of support and proper alignment to prepare to engage in occupations.
• Establishing the ability to bear weight and shift weight through the more affected lower extremity.
• Encouraging dynamic reaching activities in multiple environments to develop task-specific weight-shifting abilities.
• Using the environment to grade task difficulty and provide external support.
• Training upright control within the context of functional tasks that are graded.

21

What are the benefits of sidelying on the affected side after stroke?

sensory input
become more aware of this side
become less fearful of putting weight on weak side
can help prevent painful shoulders
can reduce increased tone in flexion synergies

22

The shoulder can be at risk in sidelying. Why? How can you help?

increased risk of subluxation due to instability in glenohumeral joint and malalignment of positioning (i.e. scapula retracted, arm across body)

teach pt to protract scapula and support position with pillows

23

Why might you discourage clasped hands overhead ranging of UEs after stroke?

risk of increasing pain, prompting impingement syndrome and/or stressing carpal ligaments

24

List 5 contraindications for the use of a Bioness FES device.

-skin cancer
-metal pins or plates
-at risk for seizures
-pacemakers
-don’t apply on malignant tumor
-fracture/disclocation
-don’t use: simultaneously with high frequency surgical equipment; in proximity to shortwave or microwave therapy equipment

25

List 5 contraindications for the use of a REO Go Therapy device.

-client without supervision
-clients who can’t be active for 60 min without cardiac or respiratory problems
-persons with fixed contractures in affected limb
-persons with significant sensation/cognitive/linguistic/perceptual impairments

26

What electronic neurotherapy tools explored in our labs can be used in conjunction with CIT therapy? Which not?

Can be used in conjunction:
-Reo-go
-Armeo
-Bioness H200

Can not be used in conjunction:
-Functional Electrical Stimulation: RT300 by Restorative Therapies- unaffected hand could perform all of the work

27

Briefly describe what is meant by “computerized dynamic posturography” in the use of the SMART Balance Master.

method of assessing/isolating functional contributions of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory inputs, and the neuromuscular system in postural control and balance

pt stands on moveable platform with moving surround enclosure. Platform moves in various planes and records pt’s postural stability and motor reactions.

28

Why is the traditional “functional C” design hand splint a poor choice for people with hemiplegic hands (give four reasons)?

1. the traditional functional “C” positions the long finger flexors in a shortened position
2. the bent up sides cause bridging of the straps that allow the fingers to pull back and out
3. the thumb is usually positioned in too much opposition-they usually have one strap for all four fingers
4. the neurologically involved hand is a dynamic component that is constantly changing
-it changes with postural movements and associated reactions (e.g., sneezing, laughting, or standing up from chair) resulting in increased tone
-as the fingers move into flexion, something has to give
-unfortunately, it’s the patient’s IP joints that give under the pressure
-pain and joint damage are often the end result
5. “chronic imbalances of the force about a joint or series of joints can lead to deformities”

29

Why is a Saebo-Stretch splint considered a better choice than a static splint for a hemiplegic hand (four reasons)?

as tone increases, the SaeboStretch protects the joints by allowing the fingers to move into flexion

provides a low-load, long duration stretch to return fingers to extension

improve positioning by utilizing new strapping design with non-slip material

maintain and/or improve range of motion

to prevent contractures or minimize soft tissue shortening

overcomes issues which can result from traditional splints including deformity, joint damage, hypermobility, and contracture

30

Describe the Saebo-Stretch

also known as a resting hand splint or a night-time splint
stroke, TBI, SCI, CP

to prevent contractures or minimize soft tissue shortening
dynamic hand piece

allows the fingers to move through flexion caused by associated reactions (laugh, sneeze, stands up out of chair) and tone

utilizes a low-load, long-duration stretch to return the fingers to the desired position

overcomes issues which can result from traditional splints including deformity, joint damage, hypermobility, and contractures