Flashcards in Home Safety and Modifications Deck (24)
refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people with disabilities. The concept of accessible design ensures both "direct access" (i.e. unassisted) and "indirect access" meaning compatibility with a person's assistive technology (for example, computer screen readers)
Be able to list at least 4 elements of “barrier free” design in place at Theatre Row.
Lever handles on all doors
Really flat and hard carpeting - good for wheelchairs
Define “universal design”.
-broad-spectrum ideas meant to produce buildings, products and environments that are inherently accessible to older people, people without disabilities, and people with disabilities.
Equitable Use: the design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities
Flexibility in Use: the design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities
Simple and Intuitive Use: use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level
Perceptible Information: the design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities.
Tolerance for Error: the design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions.
Low Physical Effort: the design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue
Size and Space for Approach and Use: appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user’s body size, posture, or mobility.
What are the primary features of a home designed with “visitability” in mind?
-A house that anyone can use (people who live there and any person visiting)
-Similar to universal design but more focused
-3 basic requirements
1. One zero-step entrance accessible from the driveway or sidewalk
2. Doors with 32 inches of clear passage space
3. One bathroom on main floor (at least ½ bath) that can be accessed in a wheelchair (**If goal is for resident to remain in home despite an impairment, there needs to be a full bath and space that can be a bedroom on the main floor)
You are working in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. When is the optimal time for you to conduct a home evaluation for a particular client?
OTs should ask questions right from the start, but a thorough home eval should be performed once client has stabilized and discharge is imminent.
"From the initial meeting with a client or caregivers, the OT must have an idea about the home environment to which the client will return."
"The home evaluation should be performed when the client's mobility status is stabilized with status close to where you anticipate it will be at discharge. Collaboration with the physical therapist regarding a client's ambulatory status and potential is essential to determine the timing and necessity of the evaluation."
Why is it important to collaborate with a physical therapist in making recommendations for home discharge of a particular client?
PT is needed to inform OT on client's ambulatory status and potential.
What role does a social worker often play in the process of home adaptation?
The social worker may be involved in working out funding for needed equipment and alterations, and the client should be made aware of this service when cost is discussed.
What role does a rehabilitation engineer serve in home modification?
The Rehabilitation Engineer makes recommendations for structural modifications of the home and works with local contractors regarding design and implementation of needed modifications.
If you are unable to conduct a home assessment in person before your client is discharged to home, what other options are available to you?
Have family members take pictures/video of the house and ask them to provide basic measurements
Be able to discuss some family and role-based considerations involved in making home modification recommendations.
-cultural expectations surrounding independence, financial ability, need for privacy, some areas of the home may not need to be changed if that’s not a place the person goes often (if the client doesn’t cook, their husband does, then expensive and extensive kitchen renovations may not need to happen) This can also be the case for two-story houses; they might not need to make modifications to the second floor
Explain why it can be helpful to have your client come with you to a home assessment.
-The client may want something you can’t give them or you may want to implement something that they don’t want - you can talk it out on the spot and come up with a solution
-You can make plans as you move throughout the house together
-They can show you how they do things/maneuver through their home
What tools should you bring with you to a home assessment visit?
Catalogs or photos of equipment
Stud finder for grab bars
Level with slope finder or laser level
Fish scale (for ADA door weights)
Software to draw layouts
Be able to list at least five home modifications that may address “aging-related” mobility challenges.
Clothes hamper on wheels
Be able to list at least five home modifications that may address “aging-related” sensory challenges.
Setting water heater to max at ~116
Protective gloves for use with appliances in kitchen (so they dont burn themselves)
Contrast tape on stairs
Appliances with visual feedback (for HH)
Appliances with auditory feedback (for visual impairments)
Be able to list at least five home modifications that may address “aging-related” cognitive challenges.
Appliances with automatic shut-off
Labels on cabinets/drawers
Remove cabinet doors or replace with glass
Be able to describe at least five typical home modifications for a person with balance and vision challenges that do not require purchasing equipment.
Removing trip hazards
High contrast tape on stairs
Removing rugs with busy patterns
Removing obstacles for field cuts or neglect
Referral to the department for blind and visually impaired
Also adequate lighting; automated lighting (motion activated, timed); large print and talking devices (although these require money I would imagine)
Be able to explain when you would recommend each of the following: (1) bedside commode, 3-in-one commode, shower seat, and transfer tub bench.
Bedside commode: too weak to ambulate to bathroom, bathroom not safe or inaccessible
3 in 1 commode: 1 piece of equipment that could be used as: BSC, shower chair, toilet safety frame- insurance won’t pay for much, progressive needs, safety
Shower seat: balance is an issue, fatigue from process of showering, preventing fatigue (such as in the case of RA), they have a shower stall
Transfer tub bench: precautions or muscle strength in 1 or both legs prevents from patient from stepping over tub lip, they have a bathtub, poor balance, safer than stepping over tub, easily fatigued
What other common adaptations are often recommended for the bathroom for a person who has difficulty with transfers?
Toilet safety frame
Raised toilet seat (but not too high!)
Tub bench that slides in and out of the shower
List at least five sources for helping to fund home modifications (other than your client’s own pocketbook).
Insurance (such as VA benefits)
Local service organizations (Lions, Kiwanis)
Disability specific funding assistance programs
Fundraisers from community
DARS - any person with a disability that can possibly work if their house was set-up to support them
Describe the parts of an X-10 setup that remotely control a lamp or radio.
X10 home automation uses your existing mains wiring to communicate digital data between X10 devices. Bursts of data encoded on a 120 kHz carrier are transmitted during the zero crossings of the 50/60 Hz AC voltage waveform, with only one digital bit being transmitted at each zero crossing
How is an Insteon system different from an X-10 system?
Insteon: The modules communicate with each other (also more expensive)
How do Zigbee and Zwave devices communicate?
Through wifi networks
Describe the basic characteristics of Level 1 – Level 5 Smart Homes.
Remote Control: Level 1 is the simplest and includes simple remote control of lights and appliances using a transmitter and a receiver. There is no intermediate hardware involved. Obviously the Level 1 system can be fairly inexpensive. But it basically consists of controlling “one” device at a time.
Macros: A macro is the ability to use one command to actually control several devices. A single touch could dim the lights, close the drapes, put on soft music and start the Hot Tub. One macro can actually run another macro as well. Some type of programming is required to store the macros. This programming can be done from another controller or from a computer. These devices are in fact sophisticated controllers that do not require a computer to run normally. The Level 2 unit is a sophisticated transmitter but does not monitor actions or do conditional control.
Conditional Control: Level 3 has the ability to do conditional logic. For example, turn on a sound device if the time is night time and the garage doors have been open for over 15 minutes. Generally this device is computer controlled or is based on a dedicated processor based controller. Up to this point, the manual control of devices comes from a controller consisting of buttons or switches. While the controller may be a keypad, remote control, touch panel, or a sensor, the interface is not interactive.
Interactive: Level 4 systems include the ability to control the system via a web site, voice recognition, instant messenger, email, telephone, or other system. There are few systems available that can do any or all of these. These are almost always computer based.
Learning : Level 5 incorporates “learning” into the system. The actions of the system might change automatically based on living patterns, etc. This capability is basically the ability for the system to reprogram itself. For example, if the system detects that someone routinely turns a particular device on at about the same time on weekdays, an event would be automatically added to turn on this device.