E-module 3 - Displaying data Flashcards Preview

Y2 - Research Design and Statistics > E-module 3 - Displaying data > Flashcards

Flashcards in E-module 3 - Displaying data Deck (23)
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1

What 3 elements are always required on tables or figures?

Title
Labelled axes (with units)
Legend

2

What can 2 additional components can tables/figures also sometimes have?

Annotations to describe certain elements
Asterisks to denote significance

3

What are 'legends' in the context of data presentation?

These are short paragraphs under or above the figure/table that briefly describes and explains the contents of the figure/table

4

What 4 components are found in a good legend?

Title - descriptive (how the experiment was conducted) or declarative (what the figure shows)
Methods - brief sentence about methods used to generate results shown
Results - very brief explanation of findings. p-values and sample size should be included.
Definitions - explanations of all the symbols, scale bars, error bars or abbreviations used in the figure
(in this order roughly)

5

What is the most important thing to keep in mind when thinking about displaying the data?

Your original hypothesis
- helps you to select the form of data representation that best shows what your hypothesis is aiming to show

6

What are the 6 types of ways to display data?

Pie chart
Bar chart
Histogram
Dot-plot
Box-and-whisker plot
Scatter plot

7

What are the 5 numbers indicated by significant points on a box-and-whisker plot?

Lower extreme
Lower quartile
Median
Upper quartile
Upper extreme
- box also therefore shows the interquartile range

8

What are the key elements of a table?

Column and row titles
Body
Legend

9

What can box-and-whiskers plots be used for?

Can be used for showing whether data is normal or not
Can also be used to show statistically significant difference (less sure on how though)

10

What are the data types on the x and y axis of pie charts?

x - categorical (e.g. gender)
y - counted quantitative (e.g. number of ...)

11

What are the advantages of using pie charts to display data?

Advantages
- good to show relative size of the parts of a whole
- good for information visualisation (can be considered aesthetically pleasing)

12

What are the disadvantages of using pie charts to display data and what might you use instead?

Disadvantages
- not considered scientifically accurate
- cannot show data dispersion or measure of central tendency/centrality

Use Bar charts instead as they can show both the above

13

What are the data types on the x and y axis of bar charts?

x - categorical or quantitative counted (e.g. gender/number)
y - quantitative data (e.g. number)

14

What are the advantages of a Bar chart?

Advantages
- considered accurate
- easy to interpret
Thus highly recommended

No real disadvantages other than limited by what it can show/what data types can be shown with it

15

What are the data types on the x and y axis of a histogram?

x - continuous quantitative (e.g. heart rate)
y - quantitative counted (e.g. frequency)

16

What are the differences between a histogram and a bar chart and what is the most common type of histogram?

Bar chart - can only have continuous numerical data on ONE of its axes
Histogram - can have continuous numerical data on BOTH of its axes

Most common type of histogram is a FREQUENCY HISTOGRAM - x axis is continuous and y axis is counted quantitative

17

What are the data types on the x and y axis of a dot plot?

x - categorical (e.g. gender)
y - continuous quantitative (e.g. heart rate)

18

What type of graph are dot plots most similar to and what has happened in the graph?

Most similar to bar graphs
- bars have been replaced by dots which show a better measure of data dispersion

19

What is the advantage/disadvantage to using a dot plot over its counterpart?

Advantage
- provides a better visual representation of data dispersion than bar charts

Disadvantage
- more suitable to smaller data sets, can get cluttered

20

What are the data types on the x and y axis of a box-and-whisker plot?

x - categorical (e.g. gender)
y - continuous quantitative (e.g. heart rate)

21

What are the data types on the x and y axis of a scatter plot?

x - continuous quantitative (e.g. heart rate)
y - continuous quantitative (e.g. height)

22

What is the main advantage of using box-and-whisker plots for data display and how can data be compared using them?

Used to summarise a single data-set using 5 numbers
- can plot multiple alongside each other for comparative analysis
- mainly used for non-parametric numerical data sets rather than parametric

23

What is the difference about scatter plots in their usage compared to other types of graph and what can be added to one in order to add information for interpretation?

Used to show SIMILARITY
- line of correlation can be added, can act as its own type of statistical analysis