Flashcards in EAC Injuries to Bones, Joints, Tendons and Ligaments Deck (30):
Classifications of injuries
a break or breaks in the continuity of a bone
the head of a bone becomes displaced at a joint
(this can have an associated fracture)
Over stretching or tearing of a muscle and/or a tendon
Caused when excessive tension or force is applied to a muscle.
Overstretching or tearing of ligaments at a joint.
Caused when the joint moves beyond its normal range
types of fracture
either can be:
where the skin surface over the fracture site is not broken
Where there is a wound leading down to a fracture
(the broken ends of the bone do not necessarily need to be protruding)
a fracture of the bone only, without damage to the surrounding tissues or breaking of the skin.
Where there is an associated injury to important structures (organs, blood vessels, nerves)
When the fracture is associated with a dislocation
When the bone is broken into several small pieces
When the broken ends are impacted together
6 forms of fracture
a fracture of the bone, occurring typically in children, in which one side of the bone is broken and the other only bent.
A fracture on a transverse plane across a bone
An oblique fracture is a relatively common fracture in which the bone breaks diagonally.
A comminuted fracture is a break or splinter of the bone into more than two fragments. Since considerable force and energy is required to fragment bone, fractures of this degree occur after high-impact trauma such as in vehicular accidents.
An impacted fracture is a fracture in which the bone breaks into multiple fragments which are driven into each other.
A spiral fracture (a.k.a. torsion fracture) is a bone fracture occurring when torque (a rotating force) is applied along the axis of a bone. Spiral fractures often occur when the body is in motion while one extremity is planted.
4 main causes of injury
Direct force injury
when the bone breaks at the point where the force is applied e.g. from a kick or a blow
Indirect force injury
When the bone breaks at some distance from the spot where force has been applied e.g. clavicle fractured although the force was applied to a hand during a fall. or landing heavily on the feet and injuring the spine
Muscular action injury
where there is violent contraction of muscles e.g. at the kneecap or elbow
Where disease or degeneration of the bone tissue has weakened the bone to the extent that it collapses under stress.
sings and symptoms of:
Loss of power
complications of a fracture
closed # becoming and open #
damage to blood vessels
damage to nerves
risk of fatty embolism
amputations (full or partial)
Potential for blood loss from fractures
Tibia or Fibula 500-1000ml
Radius or Ulna 250-500ml
Always assuming a fracture if in doubt.
Treating a fracture before moving the pt unless in obviously dangerous surrounding or conditions.
Reassuring and explaining
Support and immobilise the affected part of the body to prevent movement and to control the body part.
Straighten Limbs where possible without causing unnecessary pain.
Immobilising fractures avoiding direct pressure over injury site.
Apply a wound dressing to open fractures.
For hip/NoF # strap the injured leg to the other leg with padding between legs.
Making pt's comfortable when not possible to splint.
Place pt in a comfortable position and if possible raise the injury to reduce swelling
Check often to ensure bandages haven't become to tight due to swelling
Check for circulation and nerve impairment above and below injury site
signs and symptoms of:
As for a fracture, except there is a fixation of the joint and therefore no movement. Often is impossible to distinguish between a fracture and a dislocation if the injury is near a joint.
Managing as for a fracture
but apply the following:
Not attempting to move or straighten the injury
Immobilising by the best means possible
Improvising if necessary
signs and symptoms of:
Sprains and Strains
Swelling, severe with sprain
Severe cramp with strain
Bruising or redness
Pain, increased with movement