EAC Injuries to Bones, Joints, Tendons and Ligaments Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EAC Injuries to Bones, Joints, Tendons and Ligaments Deck (30):
1

Classifications of injuries

Fractures
Dislocations
Strain
Sprain

2

define:
Fractures

a break or breaks in the continuity of a bone

3

define:
Dislocations

the head of a bone becomes displaced at a joint
(this can have an associated fracture)

4

define:
Strain

Over stretching or tearing of a muscle and/or a tendon

Caused when excessive tension or force is applied to a muscle.

5

define:
Sprain

Overstretching or tearing of ligaments at a joint.

Caused when the joint moves beyond its normal range

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types of fracture

Closed
Open

either can be:
Simple
Complicated

7

define:
Closed fracture

where the skin surface over the fracture site is not broken

8

define:
Open fracture

Where there is a wound leading down to a fracture
(the broken ends of the bone do not necessarily need to be protruding)

9

define:
Simple fracture

a fracture of the bone only, without damage to the surrounding tissues or breaking of the skin.

10

define:
Complicated fracture

Where there is an associated injury to important structures (organs, blood vessels, nerves)
When the fracture is associated with a dislocation
When the bone is broken into several small pieces
When the broken ends are impacted together

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6 forms of fracture

Greenstick
Transverse
Oblique
Comminuted
Impacted
Spiral

12

define:
Greenstick fracture

a fracture of the bone, occurring typically in children, in which one side of the bone is broken and the other only bent.

13

define:
Transverse fracture

A fracture on a transverse plane across a bone

14

define:
Oblique fracture

An oblique fracture is a relatively common fracture in which the bone breaks diagonally.

15

define:
Comminuted fracture

A comminuted fracture is a break or splinter of the bone into more than two fragments. Since considerable force and energy is required to fragment bone, fractures of this degree occur after high-impact trauma such as in vehicular accidents.

16

define:
Impacted fracture

An impacted fracture is a fracture in which the bone breaks into multiple fragments which are driven into each other.

17

define:
Spiral fracture

A spiral fracture (a.k.a. torsion fracture) is a bone fracture occurring when torque (a rotating force) is applied along the axis of a bone. Spiral fractures often occur when the body is in motion while one extremity is planted.

18

4 main causes of injury

Direct force
Indirect force
Muscular action
Pathological

19

define:
Direct force injury

when the bone breaks at the point where the force is applied e.g. from a kick or a blow

20

define:
Indirect force injury

When the bone breaks at some distance from the spot where force has been applied e.g. clavicle fractured although the force was applied to a hand during a fall. or landing heavily on the feet and injuring the spine

21

define:
Muscular action injury

where there is violent contraction of muscles e.g. at the kneecap or elbow

22

define:
Pathological injury

Where disease or degeneration of the bone tissue has weakened the bone to the extent that it collapses under stress.

23

sings and symptoms of:
Fractures

Swelling
Loss of power
Irregularity
Pain
Deformity
Unnatural mobility
Crepitus
Tenderness

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complications of a fracture

closed # becoming and open #
damage to blood vessels
damage to nerves
risk of fatty embolism
de-gloving
amputations (full or partial)

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Potential for blood loss from fractures

Pelvis 1000ml-massive
Femur 1000-2000ml
Humerus 500-1000ml
Tibia or Fibula 500-1000ml
Ankle 250-500ml
Elbow 250-500ml
Radius or Ulna 250-500ml

26

Management of:
Fracture

Always assuming a fracture if in doubt.
Treating a fracture before moving the pt unless in obviously dangerous surrounding or conditions.
Administering Entonox/Analgesia
Reassuring and explaining
Support and immobilise the affected part of the body to prevent movement and to control the body part.
Straighten Limbs where possible without causing unnecessary pain.
Immobilising fractures avoiding direct pressure over injury site.
Apply a wound dressing to open fractures.
For hip/NoF # strap the injured leg to the other leg with padding between legs.
Making pt's comfortable when not possible to splint.
Place pt in a comfortable position and if possible raise the injury to reduce swelling
Check often to ensure bandages haven't become to tight due to swelling
Check for circulation and nerve impairment above and below injury site

27

signs and symptoms of:
Dislocations

As for a fracture, except there is a fixation of the joint and therefore no movement. Often is impossible to distinguish between a fracture and a dislocation if the injury is near a joint.

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management of:
Dislocations

Managing as for a fracture
but apply the following:
Not attempting to move or straighten the injury
Immobilising by the best means possible
Improvising if necessary

29

signs and symptoms of:
Sprains and Strains

Swelling, severe with sprain
Severe cramp with strain
Bruising or redness
Pain, increased with movement
Tenderness

30

management of:
Sprains and Strains

Any doubt treat as a fracture
Rest and support for the injured limb
Soft padding around limb
Firm pressure over injury
Cold compress to reduce swelling
Pain relief