EAC Seizures and Convulsions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EAC Seizures and Convulsions Deck (10):
1

Causes of Epilepsy

Cardiac dysrhythmias

Cerebral damage from previous infection e.g. meningitis or encephalitis

brain injury or lack of O2 sustained at birth

Brain trauma

Cerebral haemorrhage or tumour

Cryptogenic (cause unknown) 60% of sufferers fall into this category. Some of these may be due to an inherited disposition to seizures

2

4 types of generalised Epileptic Seizure

Absences

Tonic - arching the back

Atonic - loss of tone

Tonic Clonic - Generalised widespread shaking

3

3 types of Partial Epileptic Seizure

Simple partial - consciousness maintained, may be pins and needles, unusual taste/smell, other sensory disturbances, localised jerking without alteration.

Complex partial - alteration of consciousness, automatic behaviour, may pluck clothing, fiddle with objects and act confused. Lip smacking, chewing, grimacing, undressing, performing semi-purposive movements and walking around like intoxicated.

Secondarily generalised - Instead of stopping, a partial seizure evolves into a generalised seizure (usually tonic clonic)

4

define:
Status Epilepticus

Seizures continue for more then 30 minutes with no recovery in between.

5

problems associated with:
Status Epilepticus

can result in:
permanent neurological damage
Respiratory failure
Cardiac arrest

6

management of:
Status Epilepticus

Establishing an open airway ?NP

Artificially ventilating the lungs if possible

Giving high % O2

Considering paramedic intervention

Patients own buccal midazolam (refer PSP)

It should always be assumed that seizures are likely to start again unless patient is hospitalised and further treatment taken.

7

define:
Febrile Convulsion

caused by rapid rise in body temperature (illness, infection, layers)

resembles tonic clonic

6months to 6 years old

temp >38 is significant

management: place on bed if possible, remove layers, open windows to cool patient. consider antipyretic.

8

define:
Eclampsia

a condition in which one or more convulsions occur in a pregnant woman suffering from high blood pressure, often followed by coma and posing a threat to the health of mother and baby.

Pre-Eclampsia

TIME CRITICAL

9

management of:
Epilepsy

ensure an open airway
Making the patient comfortable lying down
Loosening tight clothing, removing spectacles, supporting and protecting the head with a folded blanket or pillow
Protecting the patient from injury during seizure by moving any nearby objects which could be harmful
Not attempting to restrain convulsive movements
Not putting anything in the mouth
Placing the patient into the recovery position once movements have stopped and ensuring clear airway
Being prepared to administer oxygen if necessary
Allowing the patient to recover in their own time; talk quietly and reassure if confused
Allowing sleep after seizure as this is normal
Providing support for relatives
Taking any medication which the patient is using to the hospital
Dealing with injuries as necessary

10

consider a medic for epilepsy patients...

airway management

drugs