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Flashcards in Early cognitive psychology Deck (9)
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Gestalt psychology

Focuses on ‘wholes’ not parts or elements of experience, the "whole is more than the sum of the parts".
Interested in how we organise our perception of the world – as humans we tend to "fill in the blanks". (e.g. Principles of organization, Figure / ground distinction, Insight learning in chimpanzees)
- Max Wertheimer



Accepts theoretical speculation about the existence of mediational variables (internal mental states), provided theoretical terms are operationally defined and lead to testable predictions
- Clark Hull (1884-1952): hunger ‘drive’
- Edward Tolman (1886-1958): ‘cognitive maps’


Mentalist Psychology

Language central to models of cognition.
- Noam Chomsky (1959). Cartesian and Rationalist approach.


Developmentalist psychology

- Lev Vygotsky (Zone of proximal learning, "Thought and language" 1962)
- Jean Piaget ('Conservation', "Psychology of Intelligence" 1950)


Miller (1956)

Demonstrated the limited capacity of short-term memory as the magical number 7 (± 2)


Cognitive revolution

Started in 1960s - Human beings have an internal representations of the external world.
Computational models and connectionism (neural networks) featured heavily


Cognitive Psychology

How people learn, store, use information


Cognitive Neuroscience

Neural bases of cognition


Cognitive Science

Study of the mind / interdisciplinary
View that science and philosophy can be combined