Flashcards in Early cognitive psychology Deck (9)
Focuses on ‘wholes’ not parts or elements of experience, the "whole is more than the sum of the parts".
Interested in how we organise our perception of the world – as humans we tend to "fill in the blanks". (e.g. Principles of organization, Figure / ground distinction, Insight learning in chimpanzees)
- Max Wertheimer
Accepts theoretical speculation about the existence of mediational variables (internal mental states), provided theoretical terms are operationally defined and lead to testable predictions
- Clark Hull (1884-1952): hunger ‘drive’
- Edward Tolman (1886-1958): ‘cognitive maps’
Language central to models of cognition.
- Noam Chomsky (1959). Cartesian and Rationalist approach.
- Lev Vygotsky (Zone of proximal learning, "Thought and language" 1962)
- Jean Piaget ('Conservation', "Psychology of Intelligence" 1950)
Demonstrated the limited capacity of short-term memory as the magical number 7 (± 2)
Started in 1960s - Human beings have an internal representations of the external world.
Computational models and connectionism (neural networks) featured heavily
How people learn, store, use information
Neural bases of cognition