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History and Philosophy of Psychology > Pseudoscience > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pseudoscience Deck (9)
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1

Ad hoc immunising hypothesis

Escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory use to protect their theory from being contradicted by evidence

2

Confirmation bias

The tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories.

3

Belief perseverance

The tendency to cling to one's initial belief even after receiving new information that contradicts or disconfirms the basis of that belief.

4

Bandwagon fallacies

Type of logical fallacy based on reasoning that is unsound - that one must accept or reject an argument because of everyone else who accepts it or rejects it. Similar to peer pressure.

5

Terror management theory

Theory proposing that our awareness of our death leaves us with an underlying sense of terror with which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural worldviews

6

Emotional reasoning fallacy

Error of using our emotions as guides for evaluating the validity of a claim. Also know as the affect heuristic

7

Circular reasoning fallacy

Error of basing a claim on the same claim reworded in slightly different terms

8

Bias blind spot

Lack of awareness of our biases, coupled with an awareness of others’ biases

9

Opportunity cost

Investment of time, energy and effort in a questionable treatment that can lead people to forfeit the chance to obtain an effective treatment