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History and Philosophy of Psychology > Pseudoscience > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pseudoscience Deck (9)
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Ad hoc immunising hypothesis

Escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory use to protect their theory from being contradicted by evidence


Confirmation bias

The tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories.


Belief perseverance

The tendency to cling to one's initial belief even after receiving new information that contradicts or disconfirms the basis of that belief.


Bandwagon fallacies

Type of logical fallacy based on reasoning that is unsound - that one must accept or reject an argument because of everyone else who accepts it or rejects it. Similar to peer pressure.


Terror management theory

Theory proposing that our awareness of our death leaves us with an underlying sense of terror with which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural worldviews


Emotional reasoning fallacy

Error of using our emotions as guides for evaluating the validity of a claim. Also know as the affect heuristic


Circular reasoning fallacy

Error of basing a claim on the same claim reworded in slightly different terms


Bias blind spot

Lack of awareness of our biases, coupled with an awareness of others’ biases


Opportunity cost

Investment of time, energy and effort in a questionable treatment that can lead people to forfeit the chance to obtain an effective treatment