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Flashcards in Foundations of Psychology Deck (23)
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1

Scientific skepticism

Approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind, but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them

2

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

Considered founder of experimental psychology, "experimental introspection". Structuralist approach. Established first University based psychology lab in 1879 (Uni of Leipzig)

3

Extraordinary claims

The more a claim contradicts what we already know, the more persuasive the evidence for this claim must be before we should accept it

4

Testability

Scientists try to test the novel predictions of their (and rival) theories in order to find out if the theory really describes the world

5

Occam's Razor

If two hypotheses explain a phenomenon equally well, we should generally select the simpler one

6

Replicability

A finding must be capable of being duplicated by independent researchers following the same ‘recipe.’

7

Ruling out rival hypotheses

Findings consistent with several hypotheses require additional research to eliminate these hypotheses

8

Empiricism

The theory that all knowledge is based on experience derived from the senses.
(John Locke, human mind as a tabula rasa / Hume )

9

Rationalism

View that regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge or any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification

10

Correlation vs causation

The fact that two things are associated with each other doesn’t mean that one causes the other

11

Phrenology

Theory contending indentations and bumps on the outer skull reflect contours of the brain. Assumed brain could be divided into smaller areas of function 'localisation of function' (Franz Joseph Gall)

12

Paul Broca & Broca's area

Broca found injuries to areas in left cortical hemisphere lead to loss of speech production

13

Wernicke's area

Damage to the posterior part of left hemisphere caused problems with language comprehension.

14

Fechner's law

S = k log R
Law from psychophysics quantifying the perception of change in a given stimulus. The law states that the change in a stimulus that will be just noticeable is a constant ratio of the original stimulus.
S = psychological sensation
k = constant
R = physical stimulus of intensity

15

Functionalism

Psychological school of thought that was a direct outgrowth of Darwinian thinking. Focuses attention on the utility and purpose of behaviour that has been modified over years of human existence.
(William James 1842-1910)

16

Localisation of function

The idea that different parts of the brain are responsible for specific behaviours, or that certain functions are localised to certain areas in the brain.
(Broca & Wernicke)

17

Structuralism

School of psychology seeks to analyse the mind in terms of the simplest definable components and then to find how these components fit together to form more complex experiences as well as how they correlate to physical events. To do this, psychologists employ introspection.
(Wundt and Titchener)

18

William James (1842-1910)

Considered founder of functionalism. Behaviour can be understood in terms of its purpose without analysing mechanisms. Theoretical, rather than experimental approach. 'Principles of psychology' 1890. Influenced by Darwinism

19

Behaviourism

Systematic investigation of how sensory information influences behaviour and how consequences of behaviour influence future behaviour
(Skinner,

20

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

Studied function of conditioned reflexes & developed theory of classic conditioning

21

Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)

Studied relationship between stimulus and response. Puzzle box experiments with cats. Developed law of effect

22

John Watson (1878-1958)

Relationship between stimulus and response. 'The behaviourists manifesto' argued against introspection, emphasised objectivity, prediction and control. The environment is everything. Little Albert experiment

23

BF Skinner (1904-1990)

'Radical behaviourism' - all behaviour is determined by its consequences. Discovered the concept of the variable ratio schedule. 'Beyond freedom and dignity' proposed all human behaviour is a consequence of reward/reinforcement contingencies and 'free will' is largely non existent.