Flashcards in Earth Sciences set 3 Deck (73)
what is the rock cycle?
The rock cyle is how rocks can change from one form to another igneous – sedimentary-metamorphic
List the first three steps in the rock cycle.
1. rocks begin as magma underground, 2. rock cools, 3. form igneous rocks.
List steps 4, 5 6 in the rock cycle
4. weathering is when the rock is exposed to rain, wind etc, 5. weathered rock (erosion) settles at the bottom of water body (sedimentation), 6. over time the layers are cemented together (lithified)
List steps 7, 8 , 9 in the rock cycle
7. layers are shifted and folded due to tectonics and get heat/pressure, 8. heat and pressure make metamorphic rock, 9. some rocks melt and become magma... cycle starts again.
What is weathering?
Weathering if the physical disintegration and chemical decomposition (breakdown) of rocks
what is the difference between physical weathering and chemical weathering?
Chemical weathering is a chemical reaction that changes the rock's chemical makeup, but physical is just breaking it up in smaller pieces.
How does water affect rock?
Water freezes and splits rocks in pieces.
What makes chemical change in rock?
Acid rain can dissolve some rocks.
What is erosion?
Erosion is the transport of rock particles, sediments and soils by the action of water, wind or glaciers.
What will eventually happen to eroded rock?
It will be deposited down stream in the river bed
What is a dramatic example of erosion?
Where did Canada's deadliest land slide happen?
In the Crowsnest pass (highway 3 in BC near the border with Alberta) April 29, 1903, Turtle mountain came down on the town killing 90 people. It's still a big rocky mess
what is mining?
mining is removing minerals from the earth
What is a mine?
a mine is the facility to remove the minerals.
What are the two types of mines?
there are surface mines and underground mines.
Why would you make a surface mine?
surface mines are for when the mineral is close to the surface, and they dig a big open pit.
Why use an underground mine?
an underground mine gets at mineral buried deep in the earth, through a series of tunnels
In both mines, how do they get the minerals?
they blast the rock to small pieces and load it onto trucks to the processing plant (mill), at the mill it is crushed and the minerals are taken out.
what are the four stages of a mine?
exploration, development, operation, closure/reclamation
What is exploration?
the first stage involves research, field exploration and analyzing information to find out where the minerals are.
Who does the exploration for a mine?
prospectors and scientists try to search for the rocks/minerals that are needed.
Do all mineral finds get to be mines.
No, many are left because there is not enough of the mineral
What is development?
Development is when they do further research and make a plan, deal with government, communities, permits etc
What is the operation stage?
The operation stage is when the mine is actively taking minerals from the earth
How long can a mine last?
The mine will last as long as there are still minerals coming out
What happens at closure and reclamation?
the mine is shut down, and as best as possible the land is returned to nature, removing buildings, replanting etc.
Where is the only place in Canada that has no mines?
Prince Edward Island has no mines!
How does Canada stand on the global mining market?
Canada is a leader in mining
How many minerals does Canada mine?
60, mostly base metals iron, nickel, lead zinc and copper