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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (34):

Organisms respond to environmental changes (such as global warming) in several ways. Which response is the slowest, and thus least likely in the event of rapid environmental change?

evolutionary adaptation


Which biome is able to support many large animals despite receiving moderate amounts of rainfall?



Phytoplankton is most frequently found in which of the following zones?

tidal photic benthic abyssal intertidal



When the environment of an animal changes, the animal may respond in several ways. Which of the following represents a correct sequence (from most rapid to slowest) of potential animal responses?

*migration, acclimation, morphological change, evolution
*acclimation, migration, evolution, morphological change
*migration, evolution, acclimation, morphological change
*migration, evolution, morphological change, acclimation
*acclimation, morphological change, migration, evolution

migration, acclimation, morphological change, evolution


Which ecological unit incorporates abiotic factors?




The growing season would generallly be shortest in which of the following biomes?

deciduous forest
temperate grassland
tropical rain forest



Which marine zone would have the lowest rates of primary productivity (photosynthesis)?




Which of the following are important biotic factors that can affect the structure and organization of biological communities?

A. precipitation, wind, temperature
B. nutrient availability, soil pH, light intensity
C. predation, competition, disease
D. A and B are both true.
E. All of the above are important biotic factors that can affect community structure and organization.

C. predation, competition, disease


Which of the following is TRUE about imprinting?

*It may be triggered by visual or chemical stimuli.
*It happens to many adult animals, but not to their young.
*It is a type of learning involving no innate behavior.
*It occurs only in birds.
*It causes behaviors that last for only a short time (the critical period).

It may be triggered by visual or chemical stimuli.


Fred and Joe, two unrelated, mature male gorillas, encounter one another. Fred is courting a female. Fred grunts as Joe comes near. As Joe continues to advance, Fred begins drumming (pounding his chest) and bares his teeth. At this, Joe rolls on the ground on his back, then gets up and quickly leaves. This behavioral pattern is repeated several times during the mating season. What is the specific behavior described by this example?

agonistic behavior


Learning to ignore unimportant stimuli is called:



A type of learning that can occur only during a brief period of early life and results in a behavior that is difficult to modify through later experiences is called:



How would the dispersion of humans in the United States best be described?



All of the following phrases could characterize a population EXCEPT:

*fluctuating numbers
*variable dispersion
*measurable numbers
*several species
*geographical boundaries

several species


Which of the following is a density-independent factor limiting human population growth?

*social pressure for birth control



Carrying capacity (K)

*is calculated as the product of annual per capita birth rate (r).
*remains constant in the presence of density-dependent population regulation.
*differs among species, but does not vary within a given species.
*is often determined by energy limitation.

is often determined by energy limitation.


Which of the following could cause a realized niche to differ from a fundamental niche?

*suitable habitat
*food size and availability
*temperature limitations
*water availability
*competition from other species

competition from other species


Which of the following types of species interaction is INCORRECTLY paired to its effects on the density of the two interacting populations?

*predation - one increases, one decreases
*parasitism - one increases, one decreases
*commensalism - both increase
*mutualism - both increase
*competition - both decrease

commensalism - both increase


An example of Batesian mimicry is:

A. An insect that resembles a twig.
B. A butterfly that resembles a leaf.
C. A nonvenomous snake that looks like a venomous snake.
D. A fawn with fur coloring that camouflages it in the forest environment.
E. A snapping turtle that uses it's tongue to mimic a worm, thus attracting fish.

C. A nonvenomous snake that looks like a venomous snake.


According to the competitive exclusion principle, two species cannot continue to occupy the same

A. Habitat
B. Niche
C. Territory
D. Range
E. Biome

B. Niche


An example of aposematic coloration is the

A. Stripes of a skunk
B. Eye color in humans
C. Green color of a plant
D. Colors of an insect-pollinated flower
E. Mottled coloring of peppered moths living in the unpolluted regions of England.

A. Stripes of a skunk


The relationship existing between cattle egrets and cattle:

A. Parasitism
B. Mutualism
C. Inhibition
D. Facilitation
E. Commensalism

E. Commensalism


Following clear-cutting of a deciduous forest several hundred years ago, the land was colonized by herbaceous species which, over time, were replaced largely by shrubs, then by forest trees. Which of the following processes best describe the progression from herbaceous plants to forest trees?

A. Primary succession; facilitation
B. Primary succession; inhibition
C. Secondary succession; facilitation
D. Secondary succession; inhibition

C. Secondary succession; facilitation


The high levels of pesticides found in birds of prey is an example of

A. Eutrophication
B. Predation
C. Biological magnification
D. The Gaia hypothesis
E. Chemical cycling through an ecosystem

C. Biological magnification


Which of these ecosystems has the highest primary productivity per square meter?

A. Savannah
B. Open ocean
C. Boreal forest
D. Tropical rain forest
E. Temperate forest

D. Tropical rain forest


In the nitrogen cycle, the bacteria that replenish the atmosphere with N2 are

A. Rhizobium bacteria
B. Nitrifying bacteria
C. Denitrifying bacteria
D. Methanogenic protozoans
E. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria

C. Denitrifying bacteria


The fundamental difference between materials and energy is that

A. Materials are cycled through ecosystems; energy is not.
B. Energy is cycled through ecosystems; materials are not.
C. Energy can be converted into materials; materials cannot be converted into energy.
D. Materials can be converted into energy; energy cannot be converted into materials.
E. Ecosystems are much more efficient in their transfer of energy than in their transfer of materials.

A. Materials are cycled through ecosystems; energy is not.


Relatively small geographic areas with high concentrations of endemic species are known as

A. Endemic sinks
B. Critical communities
C. Biodiversity hot spots
D. Endemic metapopulations

C. Biodiversity hot spots


Human use of prokaryotic organisms to help detoxify a polluted wetland would be an example of

A. Ecosystem augmentation
B. Keystone species introduction
C. Biological control
D. Bioremediation
E. Population viability analysis

D. Bioremediation


Which of the following is a method of predicting the likelihood that a species will persist in a particular environment?

A. Source-sink analysis
B. Population viability analysis
C. Minimum viable population size
D. Population of dynamic analysis
E. None of the above can predict whether a species will persist.

B. Population viability analysis


A top predator that contributes to the maintenance of species diversity among its animal prey could be appropriately termed a

A. Keystone species
B. Keystone mutualist
C. Landscape species
D. Primary consumer
E. None of the above

A. Keystone species


Landscape ecology

A. Is the application of ecological principles to the design and construction of sustainable lawns and gardens.
B. Is the application of ecological principles to the study of land-use patterns.
C. Focuses primarily on human-altered ecological systems.
D. Both B and C are correct.

B. Is the application of ecological principles to the study of land-use patterns.


In general, where would you expect to find the greatest amount of environmental heterogeneity?

A. Tropical rain forest
B. Boreal forest
C. Temperate grassland
D. Arctic tundra

A. Tropical rain forest


According to most conservation biologists, the single greatest threat to global biodiversity is

A. Chemical pollution of water and air.
B. Stratospheric ozone depletion.
C. Insufficient recycling programs for non renewable resources.
D. Alteration or destruction of physical habitat.
E. Global climate change resulting from a variety of human activities.

D. Alteration or destruction of physical habitat.